Incredible Years: Therapists and Group Leaders

A growth curve analysis of parent training outcomes: examining the influence of child risk factors (inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity problems), parental and family risk factors

Background: Parent training is one of the most effective treatments for young children with conduct problems. However, not every family benefits from this approach and approximately onethird of children remain in the clinical range at follow-up assessments. Little is known about factors affecting treatment outcome for young children. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling methods were used to examine the effects of child attentional risk factors (inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity problems), parental and familial risk factors upon the efficacy of a parent training program to decrease boys? conduct problems. Mothers of 81 boys, four to seven years of age, exhibiting conduct problems attended a parent training program (The Incredible Years) which lasted 22 to 24 weeks. Treatment effectiveness was assessed at one month and one year post treatment by means of independent home observations, parent and teacher reports. Results: Results indicated significant decreases in observations of mothers? negative parenting interactions with their children and decreases in their conduct problems according to mother reports and independent observations at home. Boys with elevated ratings of attentional problems in addition to conduct problems showed similar benefits from the parent training program as the boys who did not have attentional problems.

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A Promising Parenting Intervention in Foster Care

In 2002, despite recent efforts to curtail the number of children placed in out-of-home care, there were 532,000 children in foster care in the United States (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). There is a growing literature demonstrating the extensive mental health problems of foster children, particularly their high risk for externalizing and conduct difficulties, including noncompliance, aggressiveness, and emotional liability. For example, according to the most comprehensive study of children in the child welfare system to date (National Survey of Child & Adolescent Well-Being Research Group, 2002 47%), of foster children between the ages of 2 and 15 show elevated (T score of 64) rates of externalizing problems in the CBCL (Child Behavior Checklist; Leslie, Hurlburt, Landsverk, Barth, & Slymen, 2004). In a study of 426 children (ages 6 to 17) involved in the child welfare system in California, 42% had a psychiatric disorder, mostly attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and/or disruptive behavior (Patterns of Care; Garland et al., 2001).
It has long been known that problematic children have an impact on their parents? behavior in reciprocal ways; children with externalizing problems (i.e., noncompliance, oppositional behavior, aggressiveness) elicit less positive and more negative discipline practices (Forehand, Miller, Dutra, & Chance, 1997). Negative mother-child interactions escalate into coercive cycles that deteriorate over time unless they are altered through effective parenting training (Patterson, DeBaryshe, & Ramsey, 1989). Over the past 2 decades, research has demonstrated that parent training based on social learning principles is one of the most successful interventions in the treatment and prevention of child externalizing problems (e.g., aggression, noncompliance; Horwitz, 1994).

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A Randomized Trial of Two Parent-Training Programs for Families With Conduct-Disordered Children


Clinic mothers of 35 conduct-disordered children were randomly assigned to a waiting list control group, 9 weeks of individual therapy, or 9 weeks of therapist-led group therapy based on a standardized videotape modeling program. Mothers and their children were assessed at baseline, immediately after treatment, and 1 year later by home visits, twice-per-week telephone reports, and questionnaires. One month after treatment, both groups of treated mothers showed significant attitudinal and behavioral improvements compared with untreated controls. Additionally, the children in the two treatment groups showed reductions in child noncompliance compared with control children. At the 1-year follow-up, not only were most of the changes in mothers? behaviors maintained, but both treatment groups of children continued to show significant reductions in noncompliant and deviant behaviors. There were no significant differences on any of the attitudinal or behavioral measures between individual and videotape modeling group discussion therapies at the immediate or 1-year follow-up. Total therapist time was approximately 251 hr for the entire individual group and 48 hr for the entire videotape discussion group. Although both treatments seem to offer equivalent and sustained improvements for parents and conduct-disordered children, the therapeutic efficiency of the videotape modeling group format is more cost-effective.?

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Adapting the Incredible Years Child Dinosaur Social, Emotional, and Problem-Solving Intervention to Address Co-Morbid Diagnoses

Although co-morbid diagnoses often are not the presenting problem for a child with ODD, they convey additional risk in short- and long-term treatment outcomes and may be directly or indirectly contributing to the externalizing behavior problems (C. Webster-Stratton, 1985, 1990). Thus, treatments that target children?s oppositional and aggressive behaviors, such as the Incredible Years (IY) Child Dinosaur Curriculum must be flexible enough to meet the needs of children with complicated profiles. Since young children cannot easily communicate their feelings or worries and the reasons for their misbehavior, it is important for therapists to look beyond the aggressive symptoms to the underlying reasons for the misbehavior.

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Adapting The Incredible Years, An Evidence-Based Parenting Programme, For Families Involved In The Child Welfare System


Families referred to child welfare for maltreatment and neglect are frequently mandated to attend parenting programmes. Evidence-based parenting programmes (EBPs) are underutilized or not delivered with fidelity for this population. The Incredible Years (IY) Parenting programme is an EPB that has been proven to reduce harsh parenting, increase positive discipline and nurturing parenting, reduce conduct problems, and improve children?s social competence. There is also promising preliminary evidence that IY is an effective for families involved in child welfare (Hurlburt, Nguyen, Reid, Webster-Stratton, & Zhang, under review) and for foster parents (Linares, Montalto, MinMin, & S., 2006). The current paper describes how the updated IY parenting basic programme is delivered with fidelity to this population.

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Advancing Videotape Parent Training: A Comparison Study

This study examines the specific effects of adding a broader based, videotape treatment component (ADVANCE) to a basic videotape parent skills training program (GDVM). ADVANCE treatment trains parents to cope with interpersonal distress through improved communication, problem solving, and sulef-control skills. Seventy-eight families with a child diagnosed as oppositional-defiant or conduct-disordered were randomly assigned to either GDVM alone or GCVM plus ADVANCE..

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Characteristics of Young Children with Persistent Conduct Problems 1 Year after Treatment with the Incredible Years Program


Abstract: In the present study, predictors of persistent conduct problems among children aged 4?8 years were investigated in a randomized controlled trial 1 year after treatment with the Incredible Years parent training program, or combined parent training and child treatment. Data were collected before and after treatment and at a 1-year follow-up. Pre-treatment child characteristics predicting persistent conduct problems in the child at the 1-year follow-up were high levels of internalizing and aggression problems as reported by mothers. The only family characteristic predicting persistence of child conduct problems was having contacts with child protection services. Clinicians and researchers need to closely monitor and identify children with conduct problems not responding to parent training programs. These individuals and their families are likely to need further support.

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Computer-Based Intervention with Coaching: An Example Using the Incredible Years Program

There is now widespread acceptance that evidence-based interventions treat a range of mental health and behavioral problems. Yet these evidence-based practices are often not adopted in applied settings. As a result, strategies need to be developed to overcome potential barriers to the widespread adoption of evidence-based interventions. Group-based interventions frequently rank high on lists of evidence-based practices, with studies demonstrating that well-designed group-based models are often at least as effective as the best alternative one-on-one approaches.

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URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16506070802364511

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Conduct Disorders (Book Chapter)

Clinicians working with families typically encounter children who exhibit persistent patterns of antisocial behavior-where there is significant impairment in everyday functioning. This chapter deals with features that characterize young children to whom the label of oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder is frequently applied.

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Conduct Problems and Level of Social Competence in Head Start Children: Prevalence, Pervasiveness, and Associated Risk Factors


We examined the relative contribution of a variety of risk factors, including maternal history and socioeconomic background, current levels of stress and social support, mothers’ emotional state, and parenting competence in relation to “pervasive” (i.e., at home and school) and “nonpervasive” conduct problems and low social competence. Findings indicated similar risk factors for conduct problems and for low social competence, with an ordered increase it eh number of risk factors from normal to “nonpervasive to “pervasive” groups. Harshness of parent style (i.e., slapping, hitting, yelling) significantly distinguished between the three groups for low social competence and conduct problems. Positive affect, praise, and physical warmth from mothers were positively related to social competence but unrelated to conduct problem

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Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Daily Telephone Discipline Interview


The results of this study revealed significant correlations between mothers’ reports of depression and stress and Daily Discipline Interviews (DDI) and disciplinary strategies characterized as inflexible, inappropriate, and critical. These promising results suggest that the DDI may be a low-cost effecient way of getting reasonably accurate information about parent disciplinary approaches./p>

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Engagement and Effectiveness of Parent Management Training (Incredible Years) for Solo High-Risk Mothers: A Multiple Baseline Evaluation

photoThe impact of difficult child behaviour on family functioning has a compounding effect on the physical, emotional, and psychological welfare of the child, the family unit, and the wider community. Additionally, untreated behaviour problems increase the risk of negative outcomes in adulthood (Breen & Barkley, 1998; Reyno & McGrath, 2006).

Indeed, apart from the impact on the child, recent research has confirmed earlier findings that parents of children with ADHD experience elevated stress levels, and have fewer effective parenting practices compared to parents of children without this disorder (Treacy, Tripp, & Barid, 2005). To address parenting issues and these other factors, an effective, low cost intervention strategy would obviously be a useful addition to the range of services available in everyday settings.

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Engaging Families Who Are Disengaged

Parenting is not usually the primary problem for families. If there is mental health, domestic violence, trauma, addiction, poverty, service overload etc., those problems will prohibit parents from being able to focus on, believe in and follow through with parenting ideas.
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Enhancing the Effectiveness of Self-Administered Videotape Parent Training for Families with Conduct-Problem Children

Abstract (abstract only) Parents of 43 conduct-problem children, aged 3-8 years, were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: an individually self-administered videotape modeling treatment (IVM) and IVM treatment plus therapist consultation (IVMC). Randomization also included a waiting-list control group (CON). Compared with the control group, both treatment groups of mothers reported significantly fewer child behavior problems, reduced stress levels, and less use of spanking. Home visit data indicated that both treatment groups exhibited significant behavioral changes. There were relatively few differences between the two treatment conditions. However, the IVMC children were significantly less deviant than the IVM children, suggesting that the IVMC (with therapist consultation) treatment was superior to self-administered treatment with no therapist involvement. The added benefits of therapist involvement are discussed.

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Five- to Six-Year Outcome and its Prediction for Children with ODD/CD Treated with Parent Training


Background: While short-term effects of parent training (PT) have been extensively evaluated, long-term outcome and present predictors of a diagnosis for children with ODD/CD treated with parent training are very limited. Method: In the present study, diagnostic status as outcome and predictors of treatment response were examined in a 5?6-year follow-up. Out of 99 children who had been treated in a randomised controlled trial evaluating the effects of The Incredible Years parent training (PT) or combined parent training and child treatment (PT+CT) programme, 54.5% participated in the 5?6-year follow-up study. Their diagnostic status was determined with the Kiddie-SADS interview.

Results: While all children qualified for a diagnosis of ODD/CD before treatment, 5?6 years later, two-thirds no longer received such a diagnosis, the same proportion as found at the 1-year follow-up. The most powerful pre-treatment predictors of diagnostic status at the 5?6-year follow-up were living with mother only and being a girl. At post-treatment the most powerful predictor was found to be high levels of child externalising problems.

Conclusion: The findings of the study support the maintenance of positive long-term results for young children treated with parent training because of serious conduct problems, and identify characteristics of children and families in need of added support to parent training programmes.

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Halting the Development of Conduct Problems in Head Start Children: The Effects of Parent Training

Preventing conduct problems in young children as become a focus of early intervention efforts. Estimates show that 7% to 35% of young children meet the diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder. Left untreated, children with early conduct problems face increasted risk of conduct disorders and school difficulties during early schooling and of school dropout, delinquency, and antisocial behaviors.

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Implementing Behavioral Intervention Components in a Cost-Effective Manner: Analysis of the Incredible Years Program

Multi-component interventions for conduct disorder target several contexts of a child?s life (e.g., both home and school environments) and are generally more effective than single-component behavioral interventions. Whether the multi-component approach is cost-effective remains an unanswered question. This article analyzes two decades of data from the Incredible Years (IY) Series to examine the costeffectiveness of delivering multiple, stacked intervention components versus a single-component delivery approach. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) provides decision makers with important economic information that can be used to aid in the selection of a program delivery format from one of several competing approaches. CEA concepts, including explicit budget constraints and strict dominance, are demonstrated using IY data; guidelines for interpreting CEA results are provided. Our analyses suggest that combining intervention components is a cost-effective approach to treating behavioral problems in a clinic-based youth population.

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Le programme d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales Ces Années Incroyables : expériences dans deux contextes

Year: 2010 Bibliography: Letarte, M.-J., Normandeau, S., & Allard, J. (2010). Le programme d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales Ces Années Incroyables: expériences dans deux contextes. In M. Déry, A.S. Denault and J.P. Lemelin (Eds.). Aide aux jeunes en difficulté de comportement: Regard sur nos pratiques (p. 27-48). Sherbrooke, Québec: GRISE, Université de Sherbrooke. [spacer] Abstract Les programmes d'entraînement aux habiletés.
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Long-Term Outcomes of Incredible Years Parenting Program: Predictors of Adolescent Adjustment


Background and Methods: Fifty-eight boys and twenty girls with early onset conduct problems whose parents received the Incredible Years (IY) parent treatment program when they were 3?8 years (mean 58.7 months) were contacted and reassessed regarding their social and emotional adjustment 8?12 years later. Assessments included home interviews with parents and teenagers separately.

Results and conclusion: Adolescent reports indicated that 10% were in the clinical range on internalizing behaviors, 23% had engaged in major delinquent acts, and 46% reported some substance use. Eighteen percent of children had criminal justice system involvement and 42% had elevated levels of externalizing behaviors (mother report). Post-treatment factors predicting negative outcomes (delinquent acts) were maternal reports of behavior problems and observed mother?child coercion.

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Maternal Depression and Its Relationship to Life Stress, Perceptions of Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Behaviors, and child Conduct problems.

This study examined the relationship of reported maternal depression to prior and current life stressors, and to mother perceptions of child adjustment, parent behaviors, and child conduct problems. Maternal reports of stress related to mother characteristics and to negative life events were the most potent variables discriminating depressed from nondepressed mother families.

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Mediators, Moderators, and Predictors of One-Year Outcomes Among Children Treated for Early-Onset Conduct Problems: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis


Several child conduct problem interventions have been classified as either efficacious or well established. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about predictors of treatment response and mechanisms of behavioral change. This study combines data from six randomized clinical trials and 514 children, ages 3.0-8.5, to evaluate moderators, mediators, and predictors of outcome. Among other findings, latent growth curve models of mother-report and observational measures of child externalizing behaviors suggested that marital adjustment, maternal depression, paternal substance abuse, and child comorbid anxiety/depression each moderated treatment response. Moreover, critical, harsh, and ineffective parenting predicted and mediated outcome, with the most favorable responses observed when parents scored relatively low on each construct at intake yet improved during treatment. Implications for treatment non-responders are discussed.

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Modification of Mothers’ Behaviors and Attitudes Through Parent Education Based on Videotape Modeling.

A diversity of parent training methods have emerged. Parents have been trained individually and in groups, both in the home and in the laboratory, by means of didactic lectures, sddigned readings, programmed materials, group discussions, and videotape. Specific goals of the study were:

1. To examine the effect of the program on the mothers’ attitudes of confidence, acceptance, trust, understanding, and causation.

2. to examine the effect of the program in changing the mothers’ behaviors.

3. to examine the effect of the program six-to-eight weeks after termination of the program.

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Mothers’ and Fathers’ Perceptions of Child Deviance: Roles of Parent and Child Behaviors and Parent Adjustment

Before young children with behavior problems can receive treatment, they must be identified by at least one of their parents as having severe enough problems to warrant professional attention. However, a number of researchers have cautioned clinicians against overreliance on mothers’ perceptions of their children’s deviant behaviors and have suggested that mothers may inaccurately label their children as deviant.

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Multicentre controlled trial of parenting groups for childhood antisocial behaviour in clinical practice

To
see whether a behaviourally based group parenting programme, delivered in regular clinical practice, is an effective treatment for antisocial behaviour in children.
Design Controlled trial with permuted block design with allocation by
date of referral.
Setting Four local child and adolescent mental health services.
Participants 141 children aged 3.8 years referred with antisocial behaviour and allocated to parenting groups (90) or waiting list control (51).
Intervention Webster.Stratton basic videotape programme administered to parents of six to eight children over 13.16 weeks. This programme emphasises engagement with parental emotions, rehearsal of behavioural strategies, and parental understanding of its scientific rationale.
Main outcome measures Semistructured parent interview and questionnaires about antisocial behaviour in children administered 5.7 months after entering trial; direct observation of parent.child interaction.
Results Referred children were highly antisocial (above the 97th centile on interview measure). Children in the intervention group showed a large reduction in antisocial behaviour; those in the waiting list group did not change (effect size between groups 1.06 SD (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.41), P < 0.001). Parents in the intervention group increased the
proportion of praise to ineffective commands they gave their children threefold, while control parents reduced it by a third (effect size between groups 0.76 (0.16 to 1.36), P = 0.018). If the 31 children lost to follow up were included in an intention to treat analysis the effect size on antisocial behaviour was reduced by 16%. 
Conclusions Parenting groups effectively reduce serious antisocial behaviour in children in real life conditions. Follow up is needed to see if the children’s poor prognosis is improved and criminality prevented. 

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Parent Management Training with Preschool Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Executive Summary – Aims of the Study?

In the present study we assess the preventive effects of the IY BASIC and ADVANCE parent programs in preschool children at risk for disruptive behavior disorders. We are studying the moderating effects of psychophysiological and neuropsychological variables on intervention outcome. We also study whether positive outcomes are caused by favorable changes in parenting skills. Finally, costs and cost-effectiveness are studied. One hundred and forty children, aged four and a half years are selected for the study on the basis of high aggression scores on the Child Behavior Checklist. The parents of half of these children are randomly assigned to the IY BASIC and ADVANCE programs; the other children serve as ‘care as usual’ controls. Assessments are conducted 00at pre-treatment, post-treatment, one year follow-up, and two year follow-up. Measures consist of parent questionnaires (e.g., Child Behavior Checklist, Eyberg Children?s Behavior Inventory), parent interviews (e.g., Daily Discipline Interview, NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV), teacher questionnaires (e.g., Child Behavior Checklist – Teacher Rating Form, Parent-teacher Involvement Questionnaire), and observations of parent-child interactions at home (Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System). Detailed information on the costs of the intervention and on the costs generated by the conduct problems (e.g., medical consumption, education) are monitored.

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Parent Training in Head Start: A Comparison of Program Response Among African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic Mothers


The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting program was evaluated in a low-income sample of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian mothers whose children were enrolled in Head Start. Data from two prior interventions studies [Webster-Stratton (1998) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730; Webster-Stratton et al. (in press) Journal of Clinical Child Psychology] were combined, yielding a sample of 634 families (370 Caucasian, 120 African American, 73 Asian, 71 Hispanic) across 23 Head Start centers. Centers were matched and assigned randomly t either an experimental condition (8-12 weeks of weekly 2-hr parenting classes), or a control condition (the regular Head Start Program without parenting groups).

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Parent Training With High-Risk Immigrant Chinese Families: A Pilot Group Randomized Trial Yielding Practice-Based Evidence

Discourse on the application of PT with ethnic minority families has enumerated potential cultural barriers to engagement among parents whose own socialization experiences fall outside middle-class European American heritage. Given that parent?child relations and discipline practices are the proximal targets of change, many have cautioned that cultural barriers may threaten the generalizability of PT. Wide cultural variation in parenting practices and values across ethnic groups may influence receptivity to proscribed changes in parent?child interaction patterns, perhaps accounting for increased attrition or lowered participation among ethnic minorities. As such, PT interventions targeting ethnic minority families have been enhanced by attending to cultural barriers to engagement.

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Parenting a young child with conduct problems: New insights using qualitative methods


What is qualitative research: Why should we do it? After all, isn’t quantitative research the only “legitimate” method of scientific research – objective, verifiable, and methodologically rigorous? Does qualitative research have scientific integrity? Is it reliable? Valid? Generalizable? Can it add anything new to the findings of quantitative research? Is it publishable: After all haven’t psychology journals adhered almost exclusively to quantitative models of research?
These are some of the questions the first author of this paper asked herself when the second author suggested that they undertake a qualitative analysis of parents’ experiences living with their conduct-problem children.

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Prédicteurs de l’assiduité et de l’engagement à un programme d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales

Year: 2010 Bibliography: Pilette, J., Letarte, M.J., Normandeau, S., Robaey, P. (2010). Prédicteurs de l’assiduité et de l’engagement à un programme d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales.  Revue de Psychoéducation, 39(2), 189-207. [spacer] Abstract Les programmes d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales (PEHP) sont efficaces pour aider les enfants présentant des problèmes de comportement et leur famille. Cependant, les parents.
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Prevention of Behavioral Problems in Filipino Youth with an Evidence-based Parenting Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Churches

Year: 2016 Bibliography: Javier, J., Prevention of Behavioral Problems in Filipino Youth with an Evidence-based Parenting Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Churches.  Submission to The American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Author: Javier [spacer] Abstract Introduction: Filipino youth have significant behavioral health disparities compared to non-Filipino youth.  Delivering evidence-based parenting interventions in faith-based settings.
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Protocol of Measures for the Evaluation of the Webster-Stratton Group Parenting Programme with Parents of ‘at risk’ Pre-school Children in Sure Start Centres Across Wales

The programme is one of Webster-Stratton?s Incredible Years (IY) programmes developed and researched for parents, children and teachers. The programme is being offered to parents of pre-school children at risk of developing conduct disorder and who are living in identified Sure Start areas across North Wales. The programme is being delivered by certified group leaders through seven participating Sure Start centres across North Wales.

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Related articles:

Parenting intervention in Sure Start services for children at risk of developing conduct disorder: pragmatic randomised controlled trial

Early prevention of Conduct Disorder: How and why did the North West Wales Sure Start study work?

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Randomised Controlled Trial of a Parenting Intervention in the Voluntary Sector for Reducing Conduct Problems in Children: Outcomes and Mechanisms of Change


Background: to test effectiveness of a parenting intervention (The Incredible Years), delivered in a community-based voluntary-sector organisation, for reducing conduct problems in clinically-referred children.

Methods: Randomised controlled trial, follow-up at 6, 18 months, assessors blind to treatment status. Participants – 76 children referred for conduct problems, aged 2-9, primarily low-income families, randomised to treatment vs. 6-month wait-list group. Retention was 93% at 6 months, 90% at 18 months. Interventions – Webster-Stratton Incredible Years video-based 14-week group programme. Intervention teaches cognitive-behavioural principles for managing behaviour, using a collaborative, practical, problem-solving approach. Primary outcomes – child problem behaviour by parent-report (Eyberg) and home-based direct observation; Secondary outcomes – observed positive and negative parenting; parent-reported parenting skill, confidence and depression. All measures standardised and well-validated.

Results: Group differences were tested using ANCOVA, controlling for baseline levels. Post-treatment improvements were found in child problem behaviour, by parent-report (effect size (ES) .48, p=.05) and direct observation (ES .78, p=.02); child independent play (ES .77, p=.003); observed negative (ES .74, p=.003) and positive (ES .38, p=.04) parenting; parent-reported confidence (ES .40, p=.03) and skill (ES .65, p=.01). Maternal depression did not change. Consumer satisfaction was high. At 18-month follow-up, no randomised comparison was possible. However, changes appeared to maintain at 18-month follow-up, with no significant change toward baseline level on any measure. Change in observed positive parenting appeared to mediate change in child problem behaviour.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that a group-based cognitive-behavioural parenting programme, delivered by well-trained and supervised staff can be effective in a community voluntary-sector setting, for reducing conduct problems and enhancing parenting skills. Change in parenting skill appears to be a key mechanism for change in child behaviour. Findings have implications for feasibility of translating evidence-based programmes, even for clinically-referred conduct problems, into less specialised community settings, likely to have lower costs and be more accessible for families.

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Self-Administered Videotape Therapy for Families With Conduct- Problem Children: Comparison With Two Cost-Effective Treatments and a Control Group


Parents of 114 conduct-problem children, aged 3-8 years, were randomly assigned to one of our groups: an individually administered videotape modeling treatment (IVM), a group discussion videotape modeling treatment (GDVM), a group discussion treatment (GD), and a waiting-list control group. Compared with the control group, all three treatment groups of mothers reported significantly fewer child behavior problems, more prosocial behaviors, and less spanking. Fathers in the GDVM and IVM conditions and teachers of children whose parents were in the GDVM and GD conditions also reported significant reductions in behavior problems compared with control subjects. Home visit data indicated that all treatment groups of mothers, fathers, and children exhibited significant behavioral changes. There were relatively few differences between treatment groups on most outcome measures, although the differences found consistently favored the GDVM treatment. However, cost effectiveness was the major advantage of the IVM treatment.

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Social Competence and Conduct Problems in Young Children: Issues in Assessment

Results suggest that young children with conduct problems have deficits in their social information processing awareness or interpretation of social cues – they overestimate their own social competence and misattribute hostile intent to others. Tests of cognitive prolem solving and observations of peer play interactions indicated that the children with conduct problems and significantly fewer postitive problem-solving strategies and positive social skills, more negative conflict management strategies and delayed play skills with peers.

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Social Skills and Problem-solving Training for Children with Early-onset Conduct Problems: Who Benefits?


Families of 99 children with early-onset conduct problems, aged 4-8 years, were randomly assigned to a child training treatment group (CT) utilizing the Incredible Years Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem Solving Curriculum or a waiting-list control group (CON). Post-treatment CT children had significantly fewer externalizing problems at home, less aggression at school, more prosocial behavior with peers, and more positive conflict management strategies than CON children. Significantly more CT than CON children showed clinically significantly improvements on reports and independent observations of aggressive and noncompliant behavior. The differential treatment response was evaluated according to child comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), parenting discipline practices, and family risk factors. The only risk factor related to failure to make improvements in child conduct problems after treatment was negative parenting (i.e., maternal critical statements and physical force). The long-term follow-up 1 year later indicated that most of the significant post-treatment changes were maintained.?

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Supporting Portuguese residential child care staff: An exploratory study with the Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme

Year: 2014 Bibliography: Silva, I., & Gaspar, M. Supporting Portuguese residential child care staff: An exploratory study with the Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme. Psychosocial Intervention, 2014. 23, 33-41. Authors: Silva, Gaspar DOI:10.5093/in2014a4 [spacer]

Abstract

Children in residential care have experienced high levels of social, emotional and behavioral difficulties and behaviour control by staff is an issue.
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Tailoring the Incredible Years Parenting Program According to Children’s Developmental Needs and Family Risk Factors (Book Chapter 10)

For example, parents of children who are impulsive, hyperactive, and inattentive learn about temperament and how their children?s biological make-up makes it more difficult for their children to listen, follow directions, and play appropriately with other children. They learn the importance of clear limit setting and consistent follow through and ways to help coach their children?s academic and social skills during play with other children. On the other hand, adoptive or foster parents are more likely to be focused on helping their children develop trusting relationships with them. This means they will spend more time on child-directed play, emotional coaching and building the relationship or attachment building components of the curriculum.

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The Effects of Father Involvement in parent Training for Conduct Problem Children

Thirty families who received parent training for conduct-disorder children were divided into two groups, father-involved families and father-absent families. Immediately post-treatment both groups reported significant improvements in their children’s behaviors. Behavioral data showed significant increases in mother praises and reductions in mother negative behaviors, child non-compliance and deviancy.

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The Incredible Years Basic Parent Program for Preschoolers at Risk for Developmental Disabilities in the Hong Kong Community Setting

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Kong Mo Yee, M. (2015). The Incredible Years Basic Parent Program for Preschoolers at risk for Developmental Disabilities in the Hong Kong Community Setting (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Authors: Kong Mo Yee Maureen
  Parents of children with developmental disabilities experience a greater level of.
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The Incredible Years Program for Children from Infancy to Pre-adolescence: Prevention and Treatment of Behavior Problems

Effective interventions for children with conduct problems ideally target multiple risk factors and are best offered as early as possible. Conduct disorder becomes increasingly resistant to change over time, so early intervention is a crucial strategy for the prevention or reduction of conduct problems, violence, substance abuse, and delinquency. Children with ODD and CD are clearly identifiable as early as 3-4 years of age, and there is evidence that the younger the child is at the time of intervention, the more positive the behavioral adjustment at home and at school following treatment. Intervention that is delivered prior to school entry and during the early school years can strategically target risk factors across multiple domains; home and school, and through multiple change agents; parent, teacher, and child. Unfortunately, less than 20% of young children meeting DSM-IV criteria for ODD are referred for mental health services (Horwitz, Leaf, Jeventhal, Forsyth, & Speechley, 1992). Even fewer of those referred obtain evidence-based interventions.

To address the parenting, family, child, and school risk factors for children or adolescents with conduct problems, we have developed three complementary training curricula, known as the Incredible Years Training Series, targeted at parents, teachers, and children (from birth to 12 years). This chapter reviews these training programs and their associated research findings.

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The Incredible Years Programmes in Scotland

The Hospital Education Service provides education for children and young people attending or admitted to hospital. One of the main roles of this service is to ensure minimal disruption to children’s education during these difficult times.

This service is provided by Glasgow City Council and serves children and young people from 3 to 18 years of age from all local authorities in Scotland and, on occasion, from other areas in the United Kingdom. The service offers a range of interventions to support children and their families in addressing the additional support needs of children and young people with medical conditions and/or social, emotional and behavioural difficulties.

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The long-term effectiveness and clinical significance of three cost-effective training programs for families with conduct-problem children

Year: 1989 Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C., Hollingsworth, T., & Kolpacoff, M. (1989). The long-term effectiveness and clinical significance of three cost-effective training programs for families with conduct-problem children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(4), 550-553.
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Abstract We evaluated the long-term effectiveness of three cost-effective parent training programs for conduct-problem children. One.
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The Role of Mental Health Factors and Program Engagement in the Effectiveness of a Preventive Parenting Program for Head Start Mothers


Head Start centers were randomly assigned to intervention (parent training) or control conditions, and the role of maternal mental health risk factors on participation in and benefit from parent training was examined. Parenting was measured by parent report and independent observation in 3 domains: harsh/negative, supportive/positive, inconsistent/ineffective parenting. Structural equation modeling showed that parent engagement training was associated with improved parenting in a dose-response fashion. Mothers with mental health risk factors (i.e., depression, anger, history of abuse as a child, and substance abuse) exhibited poorer parenting than mothers without these risk factors. However, mothers with risk factors were engaged in and benefited from the parenting training program at levels that were comparable to mothers without these risk factors.

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The Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Basic Parenting Programme: Parental Satisfaction in a Community Group of Portuguese Parents


A powerpoint presentation of a study in Portugal with control group evaluating IY parent program. And a research poster of the study.

Location: Centro de Psicopedadogia, a research Centre based at the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Coimbra, Portugal.

History: In October 2003 a team had the first training in the delivery of the IY Basic with an US trainer at the Centro de Psicopedagogia.

Translation and adaptation to Portuguese of all the IY Basic materials (including the DVD?s sub-titles and the translation of the manual and of the book for parents).

In 2007 the first IY Basic group was delivered by the two authors.

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Training interpreters to deliver the Incredible Years Parent Program: A cross cultural collaboration

One of the advantages of the Incredible Years (IY) Parent Training Program is that it can be tailored to meet the needs of parents from varying cultural backgrounds and to address the individual goals and values for each family and child. In numerous randomized control group studies, the IY Parent Program has been shown to effectively promote positive and nurturing parenting interactions, to reduce critical and harsh parenting and to reduce behavior problems in high risk children (Webster-Stratton and Reid 2003). The program has also been shown to be effective with parents of different racial and cultural backgrounds (Reid, Webster-Stratton et al. 2001). In particular, the program has been shown to promote positive parenting in African American, Chinese American, Asian American, and Hispanic parents ((Reid, Webster-Stratton et al. 2001; Webster-Stratton, Reid et al. 2001). Other investigators have replicated these findings with African American families (Gross, Fogg et al. 2003; Miller Brotman, Klein et al. 2003), Hispanic families (Barrera, Biglan et al. 2002), Korean families (Kim, E. unpublished manuscript) and multi-ethnic families in England (Scott, Spender et al. 2001).

Bringing the IY parenting programs to parents who speak different languages and who represent different cultural backgrounds is a special privilege and opportunity because of the rich diversity of the individuals in the groups and the chance for these families to learn from each other and build support networks. To deliver this program to parents who don’t speak English, it is necessary to partner with interpreters who share the linguistic and cultural backgrounds of the parents. We begin this partnership by offering joint interpreters and parent group leaders’ training workshops. In this training, group leaders learn about the values, parenting beliefs, and unique problems of each culture while interpreters learn about child development principles, relationship skills, and behavior change strategies as well as the IY parenting program content and methods. Two videotapes of parent groups showing group leaders working with interpreters representing four different languages form the basis for these discussions.

The article is based on transcripts of workshops between Dr. Carolyn Webster-Stratton, several English speaking IY parent group leaders and interpreters representing the following countries: Ethiopia (Amharic, Arabic, Tigrinya, Oromo), China, Vietnam, Somalia, and Mexico. The article begins with a discussion of the special issues and problems for new immigrant families. This information forms the background context for introducing the IY parent program and for addressing the goals that will be relevant for these families. Next principles of effective interpreting for the IY program and for training interpreters are reviewed. The final section includes program evaluation by interpreters after they have delivered the program in collaboration with a group leader.

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Treating Children with Early-Onset Conduct Problems: A Comparison of Child and Parent Training Interventions

Families of 97 children with early-onset conduct problems, 4 to 8 years old, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: a parent training treatment group (PT), a child training group (CT), a combined child and parent training group (CT + PT), or a waiting-list control group (CON). Post treatment assessments indicated that all 3 treatment conditions had resulted in significant improvements in comparison with controls. Comparisons of the 3 treatment conditions indicated that CT and CT + PT children showed significant improvements in problem solving as well as conflict management skills, as measured by observations of their interactions with a best friend; differences among treatment conditions on these measures consistently favored the CT condition over the PT condition. As for parent and child behavior at home, PT and CT + PT parents and children had significantly more positive interactions, compared with CT parents and children. One-year follow-up assessments indicated that all the significant changes noted immediately post treatment had been maintained over time. Moreover, child conduct problems at home had significantly lessened over time. Analyses of the clinical significance of the results suggested that the combined CT + PT conditions produced the most significant improvements in child behavior at 1-year follow-up.


As has become all too evident to researchers in the field as well as to the general public, the incidence of conduct problems in young children is increasing. Current estimates are that 7% to 25% of children are affected. This trend is disturbing, both in itself and in its social implications, for research has shown that the emergence of early-onset conduct problems in young children (in the form of high rates of oppositional defiant, aggressive, and noncompliant behaviors) is related to a variety of health and behavioral problems in adolescence – peer rejection, drug abuse, depression, juvenile delinquency, and school dropout (Campbell, 1991; Loeber, 1991).

In response to this growing social problem, a variety of innovative parent training interventions have been designed with the aim of reducing children’s conduct problems. The rationale for targeting parenting behavior as the primary focus of intervention arises from the considerable body of research indicating that parents of children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) lack certain fundamental parenting skills.

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Treating Conduct Problems and Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children (Ages 4?8 Years): The Dina Dinosaur Treatment Program


Young preschool and early school-age children with early onset conduct problems are at high risk for developing school drop out, substance abuse, violence and delinquency in later years. Consequently, developing treatment strategies for reducing conduct problems when aggression in its more malleable form prior to age 8, and thus interrupting its progression, is of considerable benefit to families and society. This article describes a treatment program, known as the Dina Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem Solving Child Training Program, specifically designed with developmentally appropriate teaching methods for young children (ages 4 to 8 years) and based on theory related to the types of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits or excesses exhibited by children with conduct problems. The treatment emphasizes training children in skills such as emotional literacy, empathy or perspective taking, friendship and communication skills, anger management, interpersonal problem solving, school rules, and how to be successful at school. Emphasis is placed on ways to promote cross setting generalization of behaviors taught by involving parents and teachers in the treatment. A review of two randomized trials with this treatment approach and long term results are provided. ?

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Treating conduct problems and strengthening social and emotional competence in young children: The Dina Dinosaur Treatment Program (Book Chapter)

This chapter describes a treatment program ? Dina Dinosaur’s social, emotional, and problem-solving child training program- that was designed specifically with developmentally appropriate teaching methods for young children (ages 4-8 years) and based on theory related to the types of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits or excesses exhibited by children with conduct problems.

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Troubled Families Problem Children (Book: Chapter 7)

In this chapter, we present a number of questions and objections which parents frequently raise when we are discussing the various content areas. In raising htese issues and offering some explanations we might use in our groups, our intention is to help therapists prepare for the nature of parent discussions. If parents do not raise these questions, out of reluctance or for some other reason, we suggest that the therapist raise these issues him/herself in order to foster problem-solving and discussion.

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Two-generation psychiatric intervention in the prevention of early childhood maltreatment recidivism

Year: 2015 Bibliography: Constantino, J., Ben-David, V., Navsaria, N., Spiegel, E., Glowinski, A., Rogers, C., Jonson-Reid, M. Two-generation psychiatric intervention in the prevention of early childhood maltreatment recidivism. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 2015. In Press. Author: Constantino, et al [spacer] Abstract Objective: This article describes experience and early outcomes of a two-generation approach to preventive psychiatric.
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Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

Impulsivity, hyperactivity, oppositionality, and aggression are behaviors that most three-and fouryear-old children display to some degree with up to 10 to 20% of preschoolers exhibiting these behaviors at significant levels at home or at preschool/day care.

This study provides an important first step in providing evidence to support the adaptation of empirically-supported interventions for use in mental health consultation when providing services to preschoolers with disruptive behavior problems. This study suggests that these interventions can be effectively exported from controlled clinical settings into community settings. These results will need to be replicated by training professionals already providing mental health consultation within the preschool setting to incorporate the use of the empirically-supported strategies into their everyday work with teachers and children. Having mental health consultation that includes empirically-supported interventions delivered within this collaborative framework available as part of the array of services will likely reduce the need for more costly treatments in the future.

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Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme (IY) in child care placements: residential staff carers’ satisfaction results

Year: 2014 Bibliography:  Silva, I. S., Gaspar, M. F., Anglin, J. Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme (IY) in Child Care Placements: Residential staff carers’ satisfaction results. Child & Family Social Work, 2014. 1-10. Authors: Silva, Gaspar, Anglin DOI:10.1111/cfs.12129 [spacer]

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate residential child care staff satisfaction with.
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Weighing in on the Time-Out Controversy: An Empirical Perspective

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Quetsch, L. B., Wallace, N. M., Herschell, A. D., & McNeil, C. B. (2015). Weighing in on the Time-Out Controversy: An Empirical Perspective. The Clinical Psychologist, 68(2), 4–19.
Authors: Quetsch, Wallace, Herschell, McNeil

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Abstract Appropriate implementation of timeout has been shown for decades to produce positive outcomes ranging from.

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