Incredible Years: Child Training

A pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills in community pre-schools in Jamaica


School-based interventions involving teacher and/or child training have been shown to benefit teacher practices and to prevent conduct

problems and improve children?s social and emotional competence in developed countries; however, we are aware of no reports from a
developing country.We conducted a pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and

emotional skills based on concepts and activities drawn from the Incredible Years Dina Dinosaur Classroom Curriculum to determine if

this approach is appropriate for use with Jamaican pre-school teachers and children.

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A pilot study of the Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur School programme


The Webster-Stratton Incredible Years (IY) Therapeutic Dinosaur School intervention was evaluated in clinically referred children with behavioural disorders. Results suggest that this is an effective intervention.

Introduction
The diagnosis Conduct Disorder (CD) is used to refer to severely disruptive, aggressive and/or destructive behaviour characterised by a repetitive and persistent pattern of anti-social behaviour in children and adolescents with an estimated prevalence between 1.5 and 3.4% (Woolfenden, Williams, & Peet, 2002).

For conduct-disordered children the need to learn and use effective relationship skills in social situations is paramount. Considerable evidence has demonstrated that programmes which enhance parenting skills result in significant improvements in the behaviour of these children (Kazdin, 1995) and parent training is seen as the intervention of choice for these children. However, there is a place for interventions that teach relevant skills directly to children alongside or, when this is not possible, instead of working with parents.

The IY Dinosaur School programme (Webster-Stratton, Mihalic, Fagan, Arnold, Taylor, & Tingley, 2001) is one of a set of interlocking programmes for parents, children and teachers. It was developed as a clinical child-training intervention for small groups of children aged four to eight years. It teaches children to develop more appropriate social and problem solving skills.

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A Preliminary Evaluation of the Incredible Years Teacher Programme

This study reports on analysis of official record data gathered on 237 primary teachers enrolled in the Incredible Years Teacher (IYT) programme during 2010-2011. IYT is a group based programme that provides teachers with training in skills to manage disruptive classroom behaviours. Before and after comparisons showed that after the provision of IYT teachers reported significant (p < 0.001) increases in the frequency of use and usefulness of positive behaviour management strategies. In addition there were generally high levels of teacher satisfaction with various aspects of the programme including: the overall programme; teaching strategies used in the course; specific teaching techniques; and workshop leaders. These findings provide preliminary evidence of the efficacy of IYT and teacher satisfaction with the programme. It is suggested that further evaluations of the programme are conducted using a randomised wait list design.

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A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of a Teacher Classroom Management Program on the Classroom Behavior of Children With and Without Behavior Problems

photoIn the UK between three and seven percent of children aged five to 15 years meet diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder (CD; National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence [NICE], 2006); boys are three times more likely than girls to have such problems (Hutchings, Williams, Martin, & Pritchard, 2011; Office for National Statistics, 2007). Children with early onset behavioral problems likely to develop into CD are at high risk for social and emotional problems, poor school attendance, school dropout, academic failure and delinquency (Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Stoolmiller, 2008). Over the last decade, teachers have reported increasing levels of behavioral problems within the classroom (Hutchings et al., 2011). These children are often taught by teachers who are ill prepared to cope with disruptive behavior (Webster-Stratton et al., 2008). They are also likely to receive less support and positive feedback from their teachers and their peers (Arnold et al., 1999). Exposure to a supportive teacher and a positive classroom environment improves the academic achievement of high-risk children (Werner, 1999). High levels of praise for appropriate behavior improve children?s behavioral, social, and emotional adjustment as does the use of proactive teaching and positive discipline strategies (Webster-Stratton et al., 2008). These studies demonstrate that there is a need for effective, evidence-based classroom intervention programs to support teachers.

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Adapting the Incredible Years Child Dinosaur Social, Emotional, and Problem-Solving Intervention to Address Co-Morbid Diagnoses

Although co-morbid diagnoses often are not the presenting problem for a child with ODD, they convey additional risk in short- and long-term treatment outcomes and may be directly or indirectly contributing to the externalizing behavior problems (C. Webster-Stratton, 1985, 1990). Thus, treatments that target children?s oppositional and aggressive behaviors, such as the Incredible Years (IY) Child Dinosaur Curriculum must be flexible enough to meet the needs of children with complicated profiles. Since young children cannot easily communicate their feelings or worries and the reasons for their misbehavior, it is important for therapists to look beyond the aggressive symptoms to the underlying reasons for the misbehavior.

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Classroom Social Skills Dinosaur Program – Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children – The Foundation for Early School Readiness and Success: Incredible Years Classroom Social Skills and Problem Solving Curriculum.

The ability of young children to manage their emotions and behaviors and to make meaningful friendships is an important prerequisite for school readiness and academic success. Socially competent children are also more academically successful and poor social skills are a strong predictor of academic failure. This article describes The Incredible Years Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem Solving Child Training program, which teaches skills such as emotional literacy, empathy or perspective taking, friendship and communication skills, anger management, interpersonal problem solving, and how to be successful at school. The program was first evaluated as a small group treatment program for young children who were diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders. More recently the program has been adapted for use by preschool and elementary teachers as a prevention curriculum designed to increase the social, emotional, and academic competence, and decrease problem behaviors of all children in the classroom. The content, methods, and teaching processes of this classroom curriculum are discussed.

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Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement


This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings indicate that classrooms had posted positively stated classroom rules at high rates, whereas teacher use of specific praise and the ratio of positive to negative interactions were less than optimal. Furthermore, classroom teachers with higher rates of general praise were found to report being more efficacious with regard to classroom management. In turn, teachers in classrooms with higher rates of disruptive behavior reported feeling less efficacious. In addition, teachers with lower rates of positive to negative interaction, who used higher rates of harsh reprimands and had higher rates of disruptions, reported higher levels of emotional exhaustion. Implications for developing supports to assist teachers struggling with universal classroom management strategies are described.

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Fostering Social and Emotional Competence: Implementing Dina Dinosaur?s Social Skills and Problem Solving Curriculum in Inclusive Early Childhood Programs


Christopher is a very active, outspoken 4 year old. He frequently engages in aggressive behavior and verbal outbursts, and to outside observers he looks angry most of the time…

This article describes an evidence-based intervention that was designed to increase children?s social and emotional competence, decrease problem behaviors, and increase academic competence. The Incredible Years Dinosaur School Social Skills and Problem Solving curriculum (Webster- Stratton, 1990, Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2003) has been shown in two randomized control group trials to decrease aggression and promote social skills in young children (Webster-Stratton & Hammond, 1997; Webster-Stratton, Reid & Hammond, 2001b). Originally designed as a small group treatment for children diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder, a revention/intervention classroom-based version of this curriculum has recently been evaluated for all children (ages 3-8 years) targeting high-risk populations. Findings from a randomized, control group intervention study in 160 classrooms (including Head Start and kindergarten classes) with 1746 children indicated that classrooms who offered the Dinosaur School program had teachers who were significantly more nurturing and consistent with discipline, focused more on promoting social and emotional behaviors and were less harsh and critical in their interactions with children. Compared with control classrooms, children in intervention classrooms where the Dinosaur Curriculum was delivered were more cooperative with teachers and peers, were observed to do more problem solving and had higher cognitive and school readiness scores (Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2006). Additionally, a pilot study was conducted investigating the effectiveness of this intervention for use with children with special needs, including Autism Spectrum Disorders. Results included increasing the receptive and expressive feeling word vocabulary, increasing appropriate and prosocial responses to interpersonal problem situations, as well as increasing engagement during large group circle times (Joseph & Strain, 2004).

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Illustrating the Multiple Facets and Levels of Fidelity of Implementation to a Teacher Classroom Management Intervention


Many school-based interventions to promote student mental health rely on teachers as implementers. Thus, understanding the interplay between the multiple domains of fidelity to the intervention and intervention support systems such as coaching and teacher implementation of new skills is an important aspect of implementation science. This study describes a systematic process for assessingmultiple domains of fidelity. Data from a larger efficacy trial of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) program are utilized. Data on fidelity to the IY TCMworkshop training sessions and onsite weekly coaching indicate that workshop leaders and the IY TCM coach implemented the training and coaching model with adequate adherence. Further, workshop leaders? ratings of engagement were associated with teacher implementation of specific praise, following training on this content. Lastly, the IY TCM coach differentiation of teacher exposure to coaching was evaluated and found to be associated with teacher implementation of classroom management practices and student disruptive behavior.

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Implementing Behavioral Intervention Components in a Cost-Effective Manner: Analysis of the Incredible Years Program

Multi-component interventions for conduct disorder target several contexts of a child?s life (e.g., both home and school environments) and are generally more effective than single-component behavioral interventions. Whether the multi-component approach is cost-effective remains an unanswered question. This article analyzes two decades of data from the Incredible Years (IY) Series to examine the costeffectiveness of delivering multiple, stacked intervention components versus a single-component delivery approach. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) provides decision makers with important economic information that can be used to aid in the selection of a program delivery format from one of several competing approaches. CEA concepts, including explicit budget constraints and strict dominance, are demonstrated using IY data; guidelines for interpreting CEA results are provided. Our analyses suggest that combining intervention components is a cost-effective approach to treating behavioral problems in a clinic-based youth population.

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Incredible Partnerships: parents and teachers working together to enhance outcomes for children through a multi-modal evidence based programme

Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of an evidence-based suite of programmes, The Incredible Years (IY), to enhance outcomes for children using a parent-teacher partnership model. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the broad evidence base for the IY parent, teacher and child programmes, uniquely focusing.
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Kindergartners Gladly Accept Puppet’s Guidance

Wally is a celebrity among kindergartners at Ben Franklin Elementary School. When he shows his tan-fabric face and brown, curly, yarn hair, kids call out to him and come running to give him a hug or a high five.

Yes, Wally is a puppet, but a beloved puppet, who, with the help of Patti Miller from Olmsted County Child and Family Services, helps teach kids social/emotional behavior skills.

Using Wally, other puppets, music and pictures, Miller and DeeDee Weidman, of Zumbro Valley Mental Health Center, are teaching Franklin kindergartners the Incredible Years curriculum. Through the curriculum, the kids learn how to deal with their emotions and find solutions to problems, said Susanne Griffin-Ziebart, the school’s principal.

In Stephanie Sirek’s class on Friday, 19 5- and-6-year-olds sat cross-legged in a circle on a rug, with their eyes on Miller and Wally. Miller had just asked the students to “show me five,” which, basically, means quiet down and pay attention. /p>

They did.

Miller sat on the rug with the kids, holding the puppet and making his mouth and left arm move. She’s not a ventriloquist, but no matter — the kids intently watched Wally, not her.

“They think he’s real, but they think he’s a real puppet,” Miller said with a smile.

Wally talked to the kids about what to do when they have a conflict with another child. Some of the many solutions included: Use your words, share, and ask a parent or teacher to help.

Griffin-Ziebart hopes to expand the program through grade three if funding can be found.

“It really gives kids very consistent messages about how they can use their social/emotional behavior skills in the best way possible,” she said.

Why is it important? For one, 57 percent of Franklin’s kindergartners assessed last fall were considered academically at-risk, Griffin-Ziebart said, and Incredible Years helps them get ready to learn.

Sirek said she and the other Franklin teachers love Incredible Years.

“It’s totally changed the way we teach kindergarten,” Sirek said. “We’ve always been on the same page when it comes to curriculum, and now we’re on the same page for social skills. We have the same language.”

Sirek is spending a lot less time dealing with misbehavior and a lot more time focusing on positive reinforcement — that’s “catching them being good,” she said.

Incredible Years came to Franklin by way of a $38,000 grant from the Rochester Area Foundation’s First Steps program. The county and school district also have pitched in for staffing and training.

More than 20 Franklin staff members are now trained in Incredible Years, and 15 students’ families are participating in a 12-week class so they can reinforce the skills at home, Griffin-Ziebart said.

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Latent Profile Analysis of Teacher Perceptions of Parent Contact and Comfort


When families are more involved there are positive outcomes for families, teachers and schools. Schools with high levels of parental involvement have better reputations in the community, higher teacher morale, higher parental ratings of teacher performance, and increased support from families (Henderson & Mapp, 2002; Heymann & Earle, 2000). These interrelated benefits are likely the result of involvement patterns that occur when parents are in contact with schools at levels they are comfortable with and the contacts are associated with increased comfort and endorsement of school. Overall parental involvement in school and in supporting children?s learning at home have received extensive attention in the literature. Less research has been conducted on patterns and teacher perceptions that can serve as a barrier to greater parent involvement. This study documented that teachers may feel less comfortable with parents of children who need the most support

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LEAP to Achieve: Learning through Encouragement, Attention, and Praise to Achieve Success

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The LEAP to Achieve Project trained teachers in effective classroom management practices using the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Training program. The project aims to determine if classrooms who receive the training have a reduction in aggressive/disruptive and off-task behavior and an increase in academic performance. In order to better determine the effects of the training, some teachers received the intervention while others did not.

“I love project LEAP. It is a very good program for teachers. It gives so many examples on how to be positive with behavior in your classroom.”

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Low tech IY wins in Jamaica

Stripped of its dependence on video technology and other resources to be found in most US and UK schools, the Incredible Years prevention program has shown that with expert modification it can still be effective even in difficult social conditions.

Dyed in the wool prevention scientists will tell you that for a program to be truly valuable it must have the potential to be effective anywhere and in any conditions ? even in a country sometimes portrayed as being among the most dangerous in the world.

The location here in question is Jamaica. In 2005 more than 1,600 people were murdered on the island and there is widespread concern about violence in schools. The program under scrutiny is the normally resource-intensive Incredible Years, successful in developed Western conditions and a key component of a recently-announced public health initiative in Ireland.

The Jamaican experiment was led by Helen Baker-Henningham of the University of West Indies against the troubling background of a survey of more than 3,000 Jamaican adolescents conducted in 2000 by colleagues Kola Soyibo and Michael Lee.

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Parents and Teachers Working Together


School-based social-emotional learning programs are cost saving for the public sector, with education services likely to recoup the cost of the intervention in five years. Lack of investment in well-being (mental health) promotion in schools is likely to lead to significant costs for society. The Incredible Years is a good example of an evidence-based intervention that can “go to scale”, and help parents and teachers work together to achieve common goals.

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Positive classrooms, Positive Children: A Randomized Controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management programme in an Irish context (short-term outcomes)


The findings point toward the overall utility and cost-effectiveness of the IY TCM programme in an Irish context. The programme led to improvements in the classroom environment, including a reduction in teacher reported stress and negative classroom management strategies, as well as fewer incidences of disruptive behaviour amongst pupils in the classroom. Some improvements were also seen in teacher reports of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties in the intervention group children when compared to their control group counterparts including, in particular, a significant reduction in emotional symptoms. Teacher reports also underline the acceptability and benefits of the programme to teachers and possibly other staff within the Irish education system.

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Reducing child conduct disordered behaviour and improving parent mental health in disadvantaged families: A 12-month follow-up and cost analysis of a parenting intervention

Year: 2014
Bibliography: McGilloway, S., NiMhaille, G., Bywater, T., Leckey, Y., Kelly, P., Furlong, M., Comiskey, C., O'Neill, D., & Donnelly, M. (2014). European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Reducing child conduct disordered behaviour and improving parent mental health in disadvantaged families: A 12-month follow-up and cost analysis of a parenting.
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School-based Intervention for K-2nd Graders with Disruptive Behavior Disorders


The benefits of this school-based intervention support its implementation for disruptive behavior in schools. This model of intervention also provides effective ways to meet the needs of an underserved population. Children with significant needs for behavioral and social/emotional intervention can be treated in the same environment where the need is greatest: the community school.

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Social Competence and Conduct Problems in Young Children: Issues in Assessment

Results suggest that young children with conduct problems have deficits in their social information processing awareness or interpretation of social cues – they overestimate their own social competence and misattribute hostile intent to others. Tests of cognitive prolem solving and observations of peer play interactions indicated that the children with conduct problems and significantly fewer postitive problem-solving strategies and positive social skills, more negative conflict management strategies and delayed play skills with peers.

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Social Skills and Problem-solving Training for Children with Early-onset Conduct Problems: Who Benefits?


Families of 99 children with early-onset conduct problems, aged 4-8 years, were randomly assigned to a child training treatment group (CT) utilizing the Incredible Years Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem Solving Curriculum or a waiting-list control group (CON). Post-treatment CT children had significantly fewer externalizing problems at home, less aggression at school, more prosocial behavior with peers, and more positive conflict management strategies than CON children. Significantly more CT than CON children showed clinically significantly improvements on reports and independent observations of aggressive and noncompliant behavior. The differential treatment response was evaluated according to child comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), parenting discipline practices, and family risk factors. The only risk factor related to failure to make improvements in child conduct problems after treatment was negative parenting (i.e., maternal critical statements and physical force). The long-term follow-up 1 year later indicated that most of the significant post-treatment changes were maintained.?

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Strengthening Social and Emotional competence in Young Children Who Are Socioeconomically Disadvantaged – Preschool and Kindergarten School-Based Curricula (Chapter 9)

The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), a nationally representative sample of more than 22,000 kindergarten children, suggests that exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children who are socioeconomically disadvantages will demonstrate less social and emotional competence and more behavior problems than more economically advantaged children.

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The Incredible Years Series: A Review of the Independent Research Base

Year: 2015 Bibliography: Pidano, A.E. and A.R. Allen, The Incredible Years Series: A review of the independent research base. Journal of Child Family Studies, 2015. 24: p. 1898-1916. Authors: Pidano, Allen DOI: 10.1007/s10826-014-9991-7

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Abstract

The Incredible Years (IY) parent, teacher, and child training series, developed by Carolyn Webster-Stratton, has been studied extensively over.

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The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme to Build Social and Emotional Competence in Welsh Primary Schools: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

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The aim of this paper is to present the research protocol for the randomised controlled trial (RCT) designed to primarily establish whether the IY Therapeutic Dinosaur School Programme, when delivered as a school-based targeted intervention, improves ?at risk? children?s social, emotional and behavioural competencies compared with a waiting list control condition.

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The Incredible Years Therapeutic Social and Emotional Skills Programme: A Pilot Study

Families of 97 children with early-onset conduct problems, 4 to 8 years old, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: a parent training treatment group (PT), a child training group (CT), a combined child and parent training group (CT + PT), or a waiting-list control group (CON). Post treatment assessments indicated that all 3 treatment conditions had resulted in significant improvements in comparison with controls. Comparisons of the 3 treatment conditions indicated that CT and CT + PT children showed significant improvements in problem solving as well as conflict management skills, as measured by observations of their interactions with a best friend; differences among treatment conditions on these measures consistently favored the CT condition over the PT condition. As for parent and child behavior at home, PT and CT + PT parents and children had significantly more positive interactions, compared with CT parents and children. One-year follow-up assessments indicated that all the significant changes noted immediately post treatment had been maintained over time. Moreover, child conduct problems at home had significantly lessened over time. Analyses of the clinical significance of the results suggested that the combined CT + PT conditions produced the most significant improvements in child behavior at 1-year follow-up.


As has become all too evident to researchers in the field as well as to the general public, the incidence of conduct problems in young children is increasing. Current estimates are that 7% to 25% of children are affected. This trend is disturbing, both in itself and in its social implications, for research has shown that the emergence of early-onset conduct problems in young children (in the form of high rates of oppositional defiant, aggressive, and noncompliant behaviors) is related to a variety of health and behavioral problems in adolescence – peer rejection, drug abuse, depression, juvenile delinquency, and school dropout (Campbell, 1991; Loeber, 1991).

In response to this growing social problem, a variety of innovative parent training interventions have been designed with the aim of reducing children’s conduct problems. The rationale for targeting parenting behavior as the primary focus of intervention arises from the considerable body of research indicating that parents of children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) lack certain fundamental parenting skills.

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The Qualitative Interactions of Children With Conduct Problems and Their Peers: Differential Correlates With Self-Report Measures, Home Behavior, and School Behavior Problems


This study examined qualitative aspects of the peer relationships of children with conduct problems in a laboratory assessment procedure. The sample consisted of 101 children aged 4 to 7 years identified by parents as having oppositional behavior problems. Positive social skills and negative conflict tactics were coded. Additionally, two categories assessing the reciprocal nature of the relationship were also coded, including behavioral “escalation” and “failure” to use social skills successfully with peers. Relations between observed peer interactions, child self-reports of peer relationships, observed and parent reports of home behavior interactions, and teacher reports of school behaviors were examined. Positive skills and failure to use skills with peers were related to loneliness and teacher reports of social competence, whereas negative behavior and escalation with peers were associated with school problems and home problems, respectively. Results are discussed in a developmental framework that highlights the potential importance of social behaviors within the peer context to later adjustment.

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Treating Conduct Problems and Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children (Ages 4?8 Years): The Dina Dinosaur Treatment Program


Young preschool and early school-age children with early onset conduct problems are at high risk for developing school drop out, substance abuse, violence and delinquency in later years. Consequently, developing treatment strategies for reducing conduct problems when aggression in its more malleable form prior to age 8, and thus interrupting its progression, is of considerable benefit to families and society. This article describes a treatment program, known as the Dina Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem Solving Child Training Program, specifically designed with developmentally appropriate teaching methods for young children (ages 4 to 8 years) and based on theory related to the types of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits or excesses exhibited by children with conduct problems. The treatment emphasizes training children in skills such as emotional literacy, empathy or perspective taking, friendship and communication skills, anger management, interpersonal problem solving, school rules, and how to be successful at school. Emphasis is placed on ways to promote cross setting generalization of behaviors taught by involving parents and teachers in the treatment. A review of two randomized trials with this treatment approach and long term results are provided. ?

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Treating conduct problems and strengthening social and emotional competence in young children: The Dina Dinosaur Treatment Program (Book Chapter)

This chapter describes a treatment program ? Dina Dinosaur’s social, emotional, and problem-solving child training program- that was designed specifically with developmentally appropriate teaching methods for young children (ages 4-8 years) and based on theory related to the types of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits or excesses exhibited by children with conduct problems.

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Use of Coaching and Behavior Support Planning for Students With Disruptive Behavior Within a Universal Classroom Management Program


Even with the use of effective universal classroom management practices, some students will need additional behavioral supports. However, to translate implementation of new strategies into the classroom, professional development programs need to be adaptive to the complexities teachers face in providing instruction and managing classroom behaviors among diverse learners. Teachers also need support to successfully implement universal practices as well as to develop and enact plans for supporting students with disruptive behavior. This article describes a universal classroom management program that embeds coaching within the model. The coach supported teachers both in implementing universal strategies and in developing and implementing behavior support plans for students with disruptive behavior. The study evaluates the effectiveness of the behavior support plans and the types of coaching activities used to support these plans. Findings indicated that during meetings with teachers, coaches spent time action planning and providing performance feedback to teachers on their implementation of the behavior support plans. In addition, teachers reduced their rate of reprimands with the targeted at-risk students. Students receiving behavioral supports demonstrated decreased rates of disruptive behavior, increased prosocial behavior, and a trend toward improved on-task behavior. In comparison, a matched sample of students with disruptive behaviors did not demonstrate improved outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed.

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