Articles Archive - Incredible Years

Outcomes of a Small Group Program for Early Elementary Students with Self-Regulation Difficulties: Limitations of Transportability from Clinic to School

Murray, D.W., Kuhn, L.J., Willoughby, M.T., LaForett, D.R., & Cavanaugh, A.M. (2021). Outcomes of a Small Group Program for Early Elementary Students with Self-Regulation Difficulties: Limitations of Transportability from Clinic to School. School Mental Health (2021). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-021-09480-4 Abstract Several mental health programs have been developed in clinics and transported into schools,.
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Incredible Beginnings in Dorset, UK: Supporting Children’s Early Development

Davidson, J. (2018). Incredible Beginnings in Dorset, UK: Supporting Children's Early Development. Presented at Incredible Years annual international Mentor Meeting 2018: Forcalquier, France.   Jane and her co-facilitator, Clare Williams, worked with early years teachers and childcare providers from Dorset. They collected participant evaluations from 4 Incredible Beginnings Groups delivered to 53.
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Incredible Beginnings Trial and Evaluation in Brinnington UK

White, C., and Singleton, J. (2018). Incredible Beginnings Trial and Evaluation in Brinnington, UK. Presented at Incredible Years annual international Mentor Meeting 2018: Forcalquier, France.   Methods: The Incredible Beginnings® programme was trialed across two settings in Brinnington and involved a 6 day training course (one day per month for six months) to.
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The Incredible Years Parenting and Child Treatment Programs: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Child Welfare Setting in Spain

Arruabarrena, I., Rivas, G.R., Cañas, M., & De Paúl, J. (in press). The Incredible Years Parenting and Child Treatment Programs: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Child Welfare Setting in Spain. Psychosocial Intervention. Abstract Incredible Years (IY) is a well-established multicomponent group-based parenting program designed to promote young children’s emotional and social.
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Protocol for a randomized pilot study (FIRST STEPS): implementation of the Incredible Years-ASLD® program in Spanish children with autism and preterm children with communication and/or socialization difficulties

Valencia, F., Urbiola, E., Romero-González, M., Navas, I., Elías, M., Garriz, A., Ramírez, A., and Villalta, L. (2021). Protocol for a randomized pilot study (FIRST STEPS): implementation of the Incredible Years-ASLD® program in Spanish children with autism and preterm children with communication and/or socialization difficulties. Trials 22, 291. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05229-1 Abstract Having access.
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Sustained CPD as an effective approach in the delivery of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management programme

Nicole Davey & Margaret Egan (2021). Sustained CPD as an effective approach in the delivery of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management programme. Educational Psychology in Practice, 37(2), 169-186, DOI: 10.1080/02667363.2021.1886910 [spacer] Abstract The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IYTCM) programme aims to equip teachers with the strategies and skills necessary to promote socio-emotional.
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Exploring the impact of Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management training on teacher psychological outcomes

Y. Kennedy, N. Flynn, E. O’Brien & G. Greene (2021). Exploring the impact of Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management training on teacher psychological outcomes. Educational Psychology in Practice, 37(2), 150-168. DOI: 10.1080/02667363.2021.1882944 [spacer] Abstract Teacher wellbeing is an important prerequisite for promoting student wellbeing, yet there is limited research exploring the potentiality of.
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The Role of International Dissemination and Implementation Organizations in Scaling Psychological Interventions

Crane, M.E., Kendall, P.C., Chorpita, B.F., Sanders, M.R., Miller, A.R., Webster-Stratton, C., McWilliam, J., Beck, J.S., Ashen, C., Embry, D.D., Pickering, J.A., Daleiden, E.L. (2019). The Role of International Dissemination and Implementation Organizations in Scaling Psychological Interventions (Unpublished). Temple University: Crane. [spacer] Abstract Despite advancements in dissemination and implementation science, a gap.
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An Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis: Behavioral Treatments for Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Groenman, A.P., Hornstra, R., Hoekstra, P.J., Steenhuis, L., Aghebati, A., Boyer, B.E., Buitelaar, J.K., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Daley, D., Dehkordian, P., Dvorsky, M., Franke, N., DuPaul, G.J., Gershy, N., Harvey, E., Henning, T., Herbert, S., Langberg, J., Mautone, J.A., Mikami, A.Y., Pfiffner, L.J., Power, T.J., Reijneveld, S.A., Schramm, S.A., Schweitzer,.
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The Incredible Years Parent, Teacher and Child Programs: Foundations and Future

Webster-Stratton, C. (2020). The Incredible Years Parent, Teacher and Child Programs: Foundations and Future. In M.E. Feinberg (Ed.), Designing Evidence-Based Public Health and Prevention Programs: Expert Program Developers Explain the Science and Art. England: Routledge. [spacer] Innovation of Incredible Years: Where We Have Been and Where Do We Go From Here?.
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Evaluating the Feasibility of the Incredible Years Attentive Parenting Program as Universal Prevention for Racially Diverse Populations

Zhou, X., Lee, R.M., & Ohm, J. (2021). Evaluating the Feasibility of the Incredible Years Attentive Parenting Program as Universal Prevention for Racially Diverse Populations. Journal of Prevention and Health Promotion, 1-25. DOI: 10.1177/2632077020976401 Abstract Parenting training (PT) can be implemented as a prevention program to effectively address children’s behavioral and psychosocial.
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Parents’ perceptions of a group-based parenting programme in families with child protection and other family support services in a real-life setting

Karjalainen, P., Kiviruusu, O., Santalahti, P., Aronen, E.T. (2020). Parents' perceptions of a group-based parenting programme in families with child protection and other family support services in a real-life setting. Child & Family Social Work 26(1), 38-49. DOI: 10.1111/cfs.12787 Abstract The aim of this study was to assess parents' satisfaction and perceived usefulness.
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Parent‑ and teacher‑reported long‑term effects of parent training on child conduct problems in families with child protection and other support services: a randomized controlled trial

Karjalainen, P., Santalahti, P., Aronen, E.T., Kiviruusu, O. (2021). Parent‑ and teacher‑reported long‑term effects of parent training on child conduct problems in families with child protection and other support services: a randomized controlled trial. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 15(7), online. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-021-00358-6 Abstract Background: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated.
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How the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program Is Trauma Informed

Webster-Stratton, c. (2020). How the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program Is Trauma Informed and Promotes Students’ Resilience and Recovery.  Incredible Years, Inc., Seattle, WA. Abstract An increasing body of research identifies the long-term impact and health harm to children’s learning and behavior due to chronic stress or a traumatic or.
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Exploring the effects of a universal classroom management training programme on teacher and child behaviour: A group randomised controlled trial and cost analysis

Hickey, G., McGilloway, S., Hyland, L., Leckey, Y., Kelly, P., Bywater, T., Comiskey, C., Lodge, A., Donnelly, M., O’Neill, D. (2015). Exploring the effects of a universal classroom management training programme on teacher and child behaviour: A group randomised controlled trial and cost analysis. Journal of Early Childhood Research,.
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Changes in Parental Self-Efficacy Following “Autism Spectrum Disorder & Language Delay Incredible Years” Parenting Program

Muschietti-Piana, V.E. (2019). Changes in Parental Self-Efficacy Following “Autism Spectrum Disorder & Language Delay Incredible Years®” Parenting Program (Unpublished dissertation). Middlesex, London. Abstract Background: Early interventions have positive outcomes for parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The Incredible Years® Autism and Language Delay (IY® ASLD) programme aims to promote parenting competence and.
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The Incredible Years Autism Spectrum and Language Delays Parent Program: A Pragmatic, Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial

Williams, M.E., Hastings, R.P., & Hutchings, J. (2020).The Incredible Years® Autism Spectrum and Language Delays parent program: A pragmatic, feasibility randomized controlled trial. Autism Research. Online First. doi:10.1002/aur.2265 Abstract Behavior problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common and particularly stressful for parents. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of delivering.
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A Feasibility Evaluation of the Incredible Years® School Readiness Parenting Programme

Hutchings, J., Pye, K.L., Bywater, T., & Williams, M.E. (2019). A Feasibility Evaluation of the Incredible Years® School Readiness Parenting Programme.  Psychosocial Intervention.   https://doi.org/10.5093/pi2020a2 Abstract Parental involvement in their children’s education, including activities undertaken by parents at home and through strong links with their children’s schools, contributes to children’s academic attainment..
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Effects of a Universal Classroom Management Teacher Training Program on Elementary Children With Aggressive Behaviors

Chuang, C-C., Reinke, W.M., & Herman, K.C. (2020). Effects of a Universal Classroom Management Teacher Training Program on Elementary Children With Aggressive Behaviors. School Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/spq000035 Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM), a.
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Promoting Behavioral Health Equity through Implementation of the Incredible Years within Primary Care

Carson, M.C., Montaño, Z., Kelman, A., Coffey, D.M., Javier, J.R. (2019). Promoting Behavioral Health Equity through Implementation of the Incredible Years within Primary Care. Translational Issues in Psychological Science 5(4), 390–401.  https://doi.org/10.1037/tps0000212 Abstract Mental health disparities continue to be a concern for racial and ethnic minorities in the United States..
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Adaptation of the “Incredible Years Child Training Program” and Investigation of the Effectiveness of the Program

Bayrak, U.H. & Akman, B. (2018). Adaptation of the "Incredible Years Child Training Program" and investigation of the effectiveness of the program. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 18 (2), 397-425. DOI 10.12738/estp.2018.2.0259   Abstract The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of the “Incredible Years (IY) Child Training Program” on behavioral.
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Feasibility of The Incredible Years Parent Program for Preschool Children on The Autism Spectrum in two U.S. sites

Dababnah, S., Olson, E.A., & Nichols, H.M. (2019) Feasibility of The Incredible Years Parent for Preschool Children on the Autism Spectrum in two U.S. sites. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 57, 120-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2018.10.010   Abstract Background: Parent strain and burden are high in families raising children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Caregivers of.
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Evidence-based Early Years Intervention

House of Commons Science and Technology Committee (2018). Evidence-based Early Years Intervention. London: House of Commons.   Early intervention is a loosely-defined term that refers to taking action as soon as possible, to tackle problems before they become more difficult to reverse. In this Report, we consider early intervention in relation to childhood adversity.
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The Earlier the Better? Individual Participant Data and Traditional Meta-analysis of Age Effects of Parenting Interventions

Gardner, F., Leijten, P., Melendez-Torres, G.J, Landau, S., Harris, V., Mann, J., Beecham, J., Hutchings, J., Scott, S. (2018). The Earlier the Better? Individual Participant Data and Traditional Meta-analysis of Age Effects of Parenting Interventions. Child Development 90(1):7-19 https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13138 Abstract Strong arguments have been made for early intervention for child problems, stating that.
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Does the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme improve child–teacher relationships in childcare centres? A 1‑year universal intervention in a Norwegian community sample

Tveit, H.H., Drugli, M.B., Fossum, S., Handegård, B.H., Stenseng, F. (2019). Does the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme improve child-teacher relationships in childcare centres? A 1-year universal intervention in a Norwegian community sample. European Child and Adolscent Psychiatry Published Online: 08 August 2019 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-019-01387-5 Abstract The Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management.
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Change in teacher–student relationships and parent involvement after implementation of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme in a regular Norwegian school setting

Aasheim, M., Drugli, M.B., Reedtz, C., Handegård, B.H., Martinussen, M. (2018). Change in teacher–student relationships and parent involvement after implementation of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme in a regular Norwegian school setting. British Educational Research Journal, 44(6), 1064–1083. DOI: 10.1002/berj.3479 Abstract This quasi-experimental pre–post comparison group design examined if the.
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Evaluation of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program in a Regular Norwegian School Setting

Aasheim, M., Reedtz, C., Handegård, B.H., Martinussen, M., Mørch, W.T. (2018). Evaluation of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program in a Regular Norwegian School Setting. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research Journal63(6), 899-912. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2018.1466357 Abstract This study examined whether the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management (TCM) program implemented as a school-wide preventive intervention.
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Teachers’ perceptions of the impact of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme on their practice and on the social and emotional development of their pupils

Allen, K., Hansford, L., Hayes, R., Allwood, M., Byford, S., Longdon, B., Price, A., & Ford, T. (2019).  Teachers’ perceptions of the impact of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme on their practice and on the social and emotional development of their pupils. British Journal of Educational.
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Innovation of Incredible Years: Where we have been and where do we go from here?

Webster-Stratton, C.W. (2019) Innovation of Incredible Years: Where we have been and where do we go from here? In A.M. Feinberg (Ed.), Designing Effective Prevention and Public Health Programs: Expert Program Developers Explain the Science and the Art (in press). Abstract The Incredible Years (IY) Series developer reviews the rationale and theories.
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Building Sustainable Parent Interventions in Early Years

White, C. (2018) "Building Sustainable Parent Interventions in Early Years." In Faulconbridge, J., Hunt, K. and Laffan, A. (Eds.) Improving The Psychological Wellbeing Of Children and Young People pp. 71-92. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.    Abstract The evidence for investing in early intervention in the early years of a child’s life is overwhelming. There.
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Therapist Roles in Facilitating the Collaborative Learning Process

Webster-Stratton, C. (2012). Therapist Roles in Facilitating the Collaborative Learning Process. In C. Webster-Stratton Collaborating with Parents to Reduce Children's Behavior Problems: A Book for Therapists Using Incredible Years Programs (303-377). Seattle, WA: The Incredible Years.   While the collaborative learning process is the underlying structure for the Incredible Years process of intervention,.
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The Incredible Years ‘Dinosaur school’ programme: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of children’s experiences

Houlihan, T.M. (2013). The Incredible Years 'Dinosaur school' programme: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of children's experiences (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Limerick, Ireland. Abstract The Incredible Years (IY) programme is an evidence-based preventative and early intervention programme designed to reduce behavioural problems and promote social and emotional competencies in children. There.
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The Incredible Years Parent Program for Chinese Preschoolers With Developmental Disabilities

Mo-yee Kong, M., & Kit-fong Au, T. (2018) The Incredible Years Parent Program for Chinese Preschoolers With Developmental Disabilities. Early Education and Development, 29(4), 494-514. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2018.1461987 Abstract The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of Incredible Years Basic Parent Training (IYPT Basic) in a community clinic setting in Hong.
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Promoting Enrollment in Parenting Programs Among a Filipino Population: A Randomized Trial

Javier, J.R., Coffey, D.M., Palinkas, L.A., Kipke, M.D., Miranda, J., & Schrager, S.M. (2019). Promoting Enrollment in Parenting Programs Among a Filipino Population: A Randomized Trial. Pediatrics, 143(2). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-0553 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based parenting programs prevent the onset and escalation of youth conduct problems. However, participation rates in such programs are.
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Do organizational conditions influence teacher implementation of effective classroom management practices: Findings from a randomized trial

Sebastian, J., Herman, K.C., & Reinke, W.M. (2019). Do organizational conditions influence teacher implementation of effective classroom management practices: Findings from a randomized trialJournal of School Psychology 72. 134-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2018.12.008 Abstract Although there is a growing evidence base about effective classroom management practices, teacher implementation of these practices varies due to.
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Efficacy of a Home Visiting Enhancement for High-Risk Families Attending Parent Management Programs A Randomized Superiority Clinical Trial

Lees, D., Frampton, C.M., & Merry, S.N. (2019, January 23). Efficacy of a Home Visiting Enhancement for High-Risk Families Attending Parent Management Programs A Randomized Superiority Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.4183 [spacer] Abstract Antisocial behavior and adult criminality often have origins in childhood and are best addressed early in the child’s life using evidence-based parenting.
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Putting the Prevention of Problems of Living Into Action in New Zealand: The Incredible Years Series of Parent, Teacher, and Child Programmes

Stanley, P. & Stanley, L. (2018). Putting the Prevention of Problems of Living Into Action in New Zealand: The Incredible Years Series of Parent, Teacher, and Child Programmes. Journal of the New Zealand College of Clinical Psychologists 28(2), 9-15. [spacer] Abstract This submission to the New Zealand Government Inquiry into Mental Health and Addiction.
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The Incredible Years® Group-Based Parenting Program for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Webster-Stratton, C., Dababnah, S., & Olson, E. (2018). The Incredible Years® Group-Based Parenting Program for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. In M. Siller & L. Morgan (Eds.), Handbook of Parent-Implemented Interventions for Very Young Children with Autism (pp. 261-282). Springer. [spacer] Abstract A new Incredible Years® (IY) Parent Program for preschool children with autism.
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Group-based parenting program to improve parenting and children’s behavioral problems in families using special services: A randomized controlled trial in a real-life setting

Karjalainen, P., Kiviruusu, O., Aronen, E.T, & Santalahti, P. (2019). Group-based parenting program to improve parenting and children's behavioral problems in families using special services: A randomized controlled trial in a real-life setting. Children and Youth Services Review 96, 420-429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.12.004 [spacer] Abstract This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the effectiveness of the Incredible Years®.
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La fidélité d’implantation d’un programme probant au-delà de son implantation initiale: l’exemple de Ces années incroyables en protection de l’enfance de 2003 à 2013

Leclair Mallette, I.A., Paquette, G., & Letarte, M.J. (2017). La fidélité d’implantation d’un programme probant au-delà de son implantation initiale: l’exemple de Ces années incroyables en protection de l’enfance de 2003 à 2013. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation / La Revue canadienne d’évaluation de programme, 32.1 (Spring / printemps), 90–108. doi: 10.3138/cjpe.31142 [spacer] Résumé Cet article présente une.
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Moderating Role of the Form of Maltreatment Experienced by Children on the Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program

Sicotte, R., Letarte, M.J., Hélie, S., & Leclair Mallette, I.A. (2018). Moderating Role of the Form of Maltreatment Experienced by Children on the Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program. Child Maltreatment, 1-10. DOI: 10.1177/1077559518790695 [spacer] Abstract The study examines whether the form of maltreatment experienced by the child moderates the effects of a parent training program (PTP) on the probability.
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Common components of evidence-based parenting programs for preventing maltreatment of school-age children

Temcheff, C.E., Letarte, M.J., Boutin, S., Marcil, K. (2018). Common components of evidence-based parenting programs for preventing maltreatment of school-age children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 80, 226–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.02.004 [spacer] Abstract Child maltreatment can lead to a variety of negative outcomes in childhood including physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Given the transactional nature of child maltreatment and.
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The Earlier the Better? Individual Participant Data and Traditional Meta-Analysis of Age Effects of Parenting Interventions for Pre-Adolescent Children

Year: 2018 Bibliography: Gardner, F., Leijten, P., Melendez-Torres, G.J., Landau, S., Mann, J., Beecham, J., Hutchings, J., & Scott, S. (2018). The Earlier the Better? Individual Participant Data and Traditional Meta-Analysis of Age Effects of Parenting Interventions for Pre-Adolescent Children. Child Development (in press). [spacer] Abstract Strong arguments have been made for early.
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Mixed methods systematic review on effectiveness and experiences of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management program

Year: 2018 Bibliography: Nye, E, Melendez-Torres, G.J., & Gardner, F. (2018). Mixed methods systematic review on effectiveness and experiences of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management program. Review of Education (in press). [spacer] Abstract Children’s early problematic behaviour correlates with later deviant behaviour. The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) program trains.
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Promoting Mental Health in Disadvantaged Preschoolers: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Teacher Training Effects

Year: 2018 Bibliography: Sebra-Santos, M.J., Gaspar, M.F., Major, S.O., Patras, J., Azevedo, A.F., Homem, T.C., Pimentel, M., Baptista, E., Klest, S., Vale, V.. (14 August 2018). Promoting Mental Health in Disadvantaged Preschoolers: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Teacher Training Effects.  Journal of Child and Family Studies. DOI: 10.1007/s10826-018-1208-z. [spacer] Abstract The literature provides solid.
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Delivering the Incredible Years® Dina Treatment Program in Schools for Early Elementary Students with Self-Regulation Difficulties

LaForett, D. R., Murray, D. W., Reed, J. J., Kurian, J., Mills-Brantley, R. and Webster-Stratton, C. (2019). Delivering the Incredible Years® Dina Treatment Program in Schools for Early Elementary Students with Self-Regulation Difficulties. Evidence-Based Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1080/23794925.2019.1631723 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation.
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The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme in primary school children: results of the STARS cluster randomised controlled trial

Ford, T., Hayes, R., Byford, S., Edwards, V., Fletcher, M., Logan, S., Norwich, B., Pritchard, W., Allen, K., Allwood, M., Ganguli, P., Grimes, K., Hansford, L., Longdon, B., Norman, S., Price, A., & Ukoumunne, O. (2018).  The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme in.
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The Incredible Years® Autism Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) Programme for Parents delivered for Northern Health and Social Care Trust (NHSCT)

McAleese, M., & Nesbitt, A. (2018). The Incredible Years® Autism Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) Programme for Parents delivered for Northern Health and Social Care Trust (NHSCT). Northern Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland. Executive Summary This report presents the results and assesses the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Autism and.
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Mediators of Change in a Parent Training Program for Early ADHD Difficulties: The Role of Parental Strategies, Parental Self-Efficacy, and Therapeutic Alliance

Rimestad, M.L, O'Toole, M.S., & Hougaard, E. (2017).  Mediators of Change in a Parent Training Program for Early ADHD Difficulties: The Role of Parental Strategies, Parental Self-Efficacy, and Therapeutic Alliance. Journal of Attention Disorders, (published online October 2017). https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054717733043 Abstract Objective: The aim was to explore mediators of change in parent training (PT) for 3-.
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Using the Incredible Years Parent Program to Help Parents Promote Children’s Healthy Life Style and Well-Being

Webster-Stratton, C. (2018). Using the Incredible Years Parent Program to Help Parents Promote Children’s Healthy Life Style and Well-Being (Unpublished paper). Incredible Years, Inc., Seattle, WA. [spacer] Abstract It is well established that parents have a critical influence on the development of positive health habits and childhood development (Golan, 2006). Parents influence the food.
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Understanding the Needs, Preferences, and Feasibility for Parent Training in Hmong Americans

Zhou, X., Lee, R.M., Ohm, J., & Khuu, B. (2018). Understanding the Needs, Preferences, and Feasibility for Parent Training in Hmong Americans. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 9(1), 62-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/aap0000095 [spacer] Abstract To provide a culturally competent parent training program for Hmong American parents, we sought to identify their cultural preferences and parenting needs,.
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A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of adding a structured home visiting intervention to improve outcomes for high-risk families attending the Incredible Years Parent Programme: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Lees, D., Fergusson, D., Frampton, C., & Merry, S. (2014). A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of adding a structured home visiting intervention to improve outcomes for high-risk families attending the Incredible Years Parent Programme: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 15(66). doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-66   Abstract

Antisocial behaviour and adult criminality.

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Teaching Children to Problem-Solve through Puppet Play Interactions

Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, J.M. (2018). Teaching Children to Problem-Solve through Puppet Play Interactions. In A.A. Drewes and C.E. Schaefer (Eds.), Puppets in Play Therapy: A Practical Guidebook (pp. 130-142). New York: Routledge.   Abstract In this chapter, we will focus on how we use puppets in the Incredible Years Dinosaur Program to teach.
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The effectiveness of the Incredible Years pre-school parenting programme in the United Kingdom: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

Morpeth, L., Blower, S., Tobin, K., Taylor, R.S., Bywater, T., Edwards, R.T., Axford, N., Lehtonen, M., Jones, C., & Berry, V. (2017). The effectiveness of the Incredible Years pre-school parenting programme in the United Kingdom: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Child Care in Practice, 23(2), 141-161. https://doi.org/10.1080/13575279.2016.1264366 [clear] The prognosis for.
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Investigating teacher and student effects of the Incredible Years Classroom Management Program in early elementary school

Murray, D.W., Rabiner, D.L., Kuhn, L., Pan, Y., Sabet, R.F. (2017). Investigating teacher and student effects of the Incredible Years Classroom Management Program in early elementary school. Journal of School Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2017.10.004 Abstract The present paper reports on the results of a cluster randomized trial of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management.
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The Incredible Years® Programs for ADHD in Young Children: A Critical Review of the Evidence

Murray, D.W., Lawrence, J.R., & LaForett, D.R. (2017). The Incredible Years® programs for ADHD in young children: A critical review of the evidence. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Advance online publication.  doi:10.1177/1063426617717740 Abstract This study evaluated the effectiveness of Incredible Years® (IY) programs for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 3 to.
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Improving self-regulation for obesity prevention in Head Start: A randomized controlled trial

Lumeng, J.C., Miller, A.L., Horodynski, M.A., Brophy-Herb, H.E., Contreras, D., Lee, H., Sturza, J., Kaciroti, N., & Peterson, K.E. (2017). Improving self-regulation for obesity prevention in Head Start: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics, 139(5), 1-10. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-2047   An estimated 23% of US preschool-aged children are overweight or obese, with higher rates among lower socioeconomic groups. Interventions that could be widely.
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Teacher perceptions of change through participation int he Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Programme

Kennedy, Y., (2016). Teacher perceptions of change through participation int he Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Programme (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University College London.   An understanding of the process of teacher change is necessary to explain the outcomes of professional development and to identify under what conditions, how and why change may or.
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Improvements in Negative Parenting Mediate Changes in Children’s Autonomic Responding Following a Preschool Intervention for ADHD

Bell, Z., Shader, T., Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M.J., & Beauchaine, T.P., (2017). Improvements in Negative Parenting Mediate Changes in Children’s Autonomic Responding Following a Preschool Intervention for ADHD. Clinical Psychological Science, 1-11.
https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702617727559
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Abstract

Abnormal patterns of sympathetic- and parasympathetic-linked cardiac activity and reactivity are observed among externalizing children and mark.
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Incredible Years® Autism Spectrum Parent Programme: Pilot Study, Powys, 2015-2017

Year: 2017 Bibliography: Evans, S. & Crumpton, J. (2017). Incredible Years® Autism Spectrum Parent Programme: Pilot Study, Powys, 2015-2017. Powys Teaching Health Board. [spacer] Abstract The Incredible Years® Autism Spectrum and Language Delays programme was developed by Professor Carolyn Webster-Stratton in 2014 as an additional and targeted programme in the Incredible Years® Suite.
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Trauma-informed Incredible Years Approaches and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TF-CBT) Approaches To Help Children Exposed to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)

Year: 2017
Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C.  (2017). Trauma-informed Incredible Years Approaches and  Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TF-CBT) Approaches To Help Children Exposed to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs).  (unpublished report).  Incredible Years, Inc., Seattle, WA.

Abstract

An increasing body of research identifies the long-term impact and health harm that can.
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How the Incredible Years (IY) Child Dinosaur Social, Emotional and Problem Solving Curriculum Prepares Children to Cope with Trauma

Year: 2017
Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C.  (2017). How the Incredible Years (IY) Child Dinosaur Social, Emotional and Problem Solving Curriculum Prepares Children to Cope with Trauma.  (unpublished report).  Incredible Years, Inc., Seattle, WA.

Abstract

In this article we will briefly describe the Incredible Years Dina Dinosaur’s Social, Emotional, Academic and.
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The Incredible Years Series: An Internationally Evidenced Multi-modal Approach to Enhancing Child Outcomes

Webster-Stratton, C., & Bywater, T. (2019). The Incredible Years® series: An internationally evidenced multi-modal approach to enhancing child outcomes. In B. Fiese, M. Whisman, M. Celano, K. Deater-Deckard, and E. Jouriles (Eds.), APA Handbook of Contemporary Family Psychology.  This chapter provides an overview of theory and practice of The Incredible Years® Series;.
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Delivering the Incredible Years parent programme to foster carers in Wales: reflections from group leader supervision

Year: 2013
Bibliography: Hutchings, J. & Bywater, T.  (2013). Delivering the Incredible Years parent programme to foster carers in Wales: reflections from group leader supervision. Adoption & Fostering, 37(1), 28-42. doi:10.1177/0308575913477075
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Abstract

Growing numbers of children in the UK enter the care system with significant emotional and behavioural problems. The recent.

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Evaluating the Incredible Years Toddler Parenting Programme with parents of toddlers in disadvantaged (Flying Start) areas of Wales

Year: 2016
Bibliography: Hutchings, J., Griffith, N., Bywater, T., & Williams, M.E. (2016). Evaluating the Incredible Years Toddler Parenting Programme with parents of toddlers in disadvantaged (Flying Start) areas of Wales. Child: Care, Health and Development, 43(1), 104-113. doi:10.1111/ccd.12415
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Summary

Background  Early risk factors for poor child outcomes are well established,.

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Incredible Years Time Out Works Because of Quality of Time In

Year: 2016
Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C.. 2016.  Incredible Years Time Out Works Because of Quality of Time In.  Incredible Years, Inc., Seattle, WA.

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The use of Time Out as a self-regulation calm down strategy for children between the ages of 3 and 9 years old is part of a.
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Taking the Incredible Years Child and Teacher Programmes to scale in Wales

Year: 2017 (in press)
Bibliography: Hutchings, J. & Williams, M.E. (2017 in press). Taking the Incredible Years Child and Teacher Programmes to scale in Wales. Childhood Education, in press.

The content and international evidence for the Incredible Years programmes for children and teachers are described. This is followed by a description.

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Outcomes of a comparison study into a group-based infant parenting programme

Year: 2016
Bibliography: Jones, C.H., Erjavec, M., Viktor, S., Hutchings, J. (2016). Outcomes of a comparison study into a group-based infant parenting programme. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 55(11), 3309-3321.
DOI: 10.1007/S10826-016-0489-3

This paper reports on a quantitative evaluation of a group-based programme designed to promote parent infant attachment and child.

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The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program: Outcomes from a Group Randomized Trial

Reinke, W.M., Herman, K.C., & Dong, N. (2018). The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program: Outcomes from a Group Randomized Trial. Prevention Science, 19, 1043-1054. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-018-0932-3 [spacer] Abstract This group randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY TCM) on student social behavioral and academic outcomes among a large diverse sample.
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Le programme d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales Ces Années Incroyables : expériences dans deux contextes

Year: 2010 Bibliography: Letarte, M.-J., Normandeau, S., & Allard, J. (2010). Le programme d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales Ces Années Incroyables: expériences dans deux contextes. In M. Déry, A.S. Denault and J.P. Lemelin (Eds.). Aide aux jeunes en difficulté de comportement: Regard sur nos pratiques (p. 27-48). Sherbrooke, Québec: GRISE, Université de Sherbrooke. [spacer] Abstract Les programmes d'entraînement aux habiletés.
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Prédicteurs de l’assiduité et de l’engagement à un programme d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales

Year: 2010 Bibliography: Pilette, J., Letarte, M.J., Normandeau, S., Robaey, P. (2010). Prédicteurs de l’assiduité et de l’engagement à un programme d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales.  Revue de Psychoéducation, 39(2), 189-207. [spacer] Abstract Les programmes d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales (PEHP) sont efficaces pour aider les enfants présentant des problèmes de comportement et leur famille. Cependant, les parents.
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Incredible Years parenting programme: cost-effectiveness and implementation

Year: 2016 Bibliography: Edwards, R.T., Jones, C., Berry, V., Charles, J., Linck, P., Bywater, T., &  Hutchings, J. (2016). Incredible Years parenting programme: cost-effectiveness and implementation. Journal of Children's Services, 11(1), 54-72. DOI: 10.1108/JCS-02-2015-0005. [spacer] Abstract Purpose - There is growing interest in the economic evaluation of public health prevention initiatives and increasing.
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The extended school aged Incredible Years parent programme

Year: 2011 Bibliography: Hutchings, J., Bywater, T., Williams, M.E., Whitaker, C., Lane, E., & Shakespeare, K. (2011). The extended school aged Incredible Years parent programme. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 16(3), 136-143. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-3588.2010.00590.x. [spacer] Abstract Developed to improve parenting skills, parenting programmes have been shown to be effective and cost-effective interventions for.
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The long-term effectiveness and clinical significance of three cost-effective training programs for families with conduct-problem children

Year: 1989 Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C., Hollingsworth, T., & Kolpacoff, M. (1989). The long-term effectiveness and clinical significance of three cost-effective training programs for families with conduct-problem children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(4), 550-553.
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Abstract We evaluated the long-term effectiveness of three cost-effective parent training programs for conduct-problem children. One.
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Impact of Incredible Years® on teacher perceptions of parent involvement: A latent transition analysis

Thompson, A.M., Herman, K.C., Stormont, M., Reinke, W.M., & Webster-Stratton, C. (2017). Impact of Incredible Years® on teacher perceptions of parent involvement: A latent transition analysis. Journal of School Psychology 62, 51-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2017.03.003 [spacer] Abstract The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) training on.
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Improving teacher perceptions of parent involvement patterns: Findings from a group randomized trial

Herman, K.C., & Reinke, W.M. (2017).  Improving teacher perceptions of parent involvement patterns: Findings from a group randomized trial.  School Psychology Quarterly 32(1), 89-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/spq0000169 [spacer] Abstract For children with the most serious and persistent academic and behavior problems, parent involvement in education, particularly teacher perceptions of involvement, is essential to avert their expected long-term.
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Incredible Years parent training: What changes, for whom, how, for how long?

Year: 2016 Bibliography: Sebra-Santos, M.J., Gaspar, M.F., Azevedo, A.F., Homem, T.C., Guerra, J., Martins, V., Leitão, S., Pimentel, M., Almeida, M., Moura-Ramos, M. (2016).  Incredible Years parent training: What changes, for whom, how, for how long?  Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 44, 93-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.appdev.2016.04.004. [spacer] Abstract The aims of this study were to examine the.
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The Incredible Years series: a developmental approach

Year: 2016 Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C. (2016). The Incredible Years series: a developmental approach. In Family-Based Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents: Theory, Research, and Large-Scale Dissemination (pp. 42-67). M. Van Ryzin, K. Kumpfer, G. Fosco, & M. Greenberg, Editors. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
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Abstract Rates of clinically significant behavioral and.
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A pilot trial of the Incredible Years Autism Spectrum and Language Delays Programme

Year: 2016 Bibliography: Hutchings, J., Pearson-Blunt, R., Pasteur, M.A., Healy, H., & Williams, M.E. (2016).  A pilot trial of the Incredible Years Autism Spectrum and Language Delays Programme. GAP, 17(1), 15-22. [spacer] Abstract The Incredible Years® (IY) basic parent programme is a group-based programme for parents of children aged 3 to 6 years. It encourages.
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The Incredible Years Parent Programs: Methods and Principles that Support Fidelity of Program Delivery

Year: 2015 Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C., The Incredible Years Parent Programs: Methods and Principles that Support Fidelity of Program Delivery. in Evidence-Based Parenting Education: A Global Perspective. J. Ponzetti, Editor, 2015. Routledge. Author: Webster-Stratton [spacer] Abstract Social, emotional, and behavioral problems in young children are the most com­mon reason parents seek help from mental health professionals..
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Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme (IY) in child care placements: residential staff carers’ satisfaction results

Year: 2014 Bibliography:  Silva, I. S., Gaspar, M. F., Anglin, J. Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme (IY) in Child Care Placements: Residential staff carers’ satisfaction results. Child & Family Social Work, 2014. 1-10. Authors: Silva, Gaspar, Anglin DOI:10.1111/cfs.12129 [spacer]

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate residential child care staff satisfaction with.
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Supporting Portuguese residential child care staff: An exploratory study with the Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme

Year: 2014 Bibliography: Silva, I., & Gaspar, M. Supporting Portuguese residential child care staff: An exploratory study with the Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme. Psychosocial Intervention, 2014. 23, 33-41. Authors: Silva, Gaspar DOI:10.5093/in2014a4 [spacer]

Abstract

Children in residential care have experienced high levels of social, emotional and behavioral difficulties and behaviour control by staff is an issue.
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Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Year: 2015 Bibliography: Constantino, J.N. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2015. In Press. Author: Constantino DOI: 10.1016/j.chc.2015.11.003
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Abstract Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. A review of the risk variables associated with child maltreatment.
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Two-generation psychiatric intervention in the prevention of early childhood maltreatment recidivism

Year: 2015 Bibliography: Constantino, J., Ben-David, V., Navsaria, N., Spiegel, E., Glowinski, A., Rogers, C., Jonson-Reid, M. Two-generation psychiatric intervention in the prevention of early childhood maltreatment recidivism. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 2015. In Press. Author: Constantino, et al [spacer] Abstract Objective: This article describes experience and early outcomes of a two-generation approach to preventive psychiatric.
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Prevention of Behavioral Problems in Filipino Youth with an Evidence-based Parenting Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Churches

Year: 2016 Bibliography: Javier, J., Prevention of Behavioral Problems in Filipino Youth with an Evidence-based Parenting Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Churches.  Submission to The American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Author: Javier [spacer] Abstract Introduction: Filipino youth have significant behavioral health disparities compared to non-Filipino youth.  Delivering evidence-based parenting interventions in faith-based settings.
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The Incredible Years Series: A Review of the Independent Research Base

Year: 2015 Bibliography: Pidano, A.E. and A.R. Allen, The Incredible Years Series: A review of the independent research base. Journal of Child Family Studies, 2015. 24: p. 1898-1916. Authors: Pidano, Allen DOI: 10.1007/s10826-014-9991-7

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Abstract

The Incredible Years (IY) parent, teacher, and child training series, developed by Carolyn Webster-Stratton, has been studied extensively over.

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The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program as a universal prevention intervention for parents of infants in Denmark: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

Year: 2015 Bibliography: Pontoppidan, M., The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program as a universal prevention intervention for parents of infants in Denmark: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial. Trials, 2015. 16(386). DOI: 10.1186/s13063-015-0859-y Authors: Pontoppidan [spacer] Abstract Background: Infancy is an important period in a child’s life, with rapid growth and.
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Classroom behaviour management strategies in response to problematic behaviours of primary school children with special educational needs: views of special educational needs coordinators

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Nye, E., Gardner, F., Hansford, L., Edwards, V., Hayes, R., & Ford, T. (2015). Classroom behaviour management strategies in response to problematic behaviours of primary school children with special educational needs: views of special educational needs coordinators. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties.
DOI: 10.1080/13632752.2015.1120048
Authors: Nye, Gardner, Hansford, Edwards, Hayes, & Ford
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Weighing in on the Time-Out Controversy: An Empirical Perspective

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Quetsch, L. B., Wallace, N. M., Herschell, A. D., & McNeil, C. B. (2015). Weighing in on the Time-Out Controversy: An Empirical Perspective. The Clinical Psychologist, 68(2), 4–19.
Authors: Quetsch, Wallace, Herschell, McNeil

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Abstract Appropriate implementation of timeout has been shown for decades to produce positive outcomes ranging from.

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Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Battagliese, G., Caccetta, M., Luppino O. I., Baglioni, C., Cardi, V., Mancini, F., & Buonanno, C. (2015). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 75, 60-71.
DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2015.10.008
Authors: Battagliese, Caccetta, Luppino, Baglioni, Cardi, Mancini, Buonanno

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Abstract Externalizing disorders are the.

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The Incredible Years Series: A Review of the Independent Research Base

Year: 2014
Bibliography: Pidano, A. & Allen, A. (2014). The Incredible Years Series: A Review of the Independent Research Base. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 1898-1916.
DOI: 10.1007/s10826-014-9991-7
Authors: Pidano, Allen

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Abstract The Incredible Years (IY) parent, teacher, and child training series, developed by Carolyn Webster-Stratton, has been studied extensively over.

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Reducing child conduct disordered behaviour and improving parent mental health in disadvantaged families: A 12-month follow-up and cost analysis of a parenting intervention

Year: 2014
Bibliography: McGilloway, S., NiMhaille, G., Bywater, T., Leckey, Y., Kelly, P., Furlong, M., Comiskey, C., O'Neill, D., & Donnelly, M. (2014). European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Reducing child conduct disordered behaviour and improving parent mental health in disadvantaged families: A 12-month follow-up and cost analysis of a parenting.
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Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in “Incredible Years,” an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Flores, N., Supan, J., Kreutzer, C., Samson, A., Coffey, D., & Javier, J. (2015). Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in "Incredible Years," an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12(178). http://dx.doi.org/10.5888.pcd12.150186
Authors: Flores, Supan, Kreutzer, Samson,.
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Implantación piloto de dos programas basados en la evidencia (SafeCare e Incredible Years) en los Servicios de Protección Infantil de Gipuzkoa (España)

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Paul, J., Arruabarrena, I., & Indias, S. (2015). Implantación piloto de dos programas basados en la evidencia (SafeCare e Incredible Years) en los Servicios de Protección Infantil de Gipuzkoa (España). Psychosocial Intervention, 24 105-120. DOI 10.1016/j.psi.2015.07.001
Authors: Paul, Arruabarrena, Indias

Abstract

This paper describes the implementation.

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Teaching classroom management – a potential public health intervention?

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Marlow, R., Hansford, L., Edwards, V., Ukoumunne, O., Norman, S., & Ingarfield, S. (2015). Teaching classroom management – a potential public health intervention? Health Education 115(3/4). 230-248. DOI 10.1108/HE-03-2014-0030
Authors: Marlow, Hansford, Edwards, Ukoumunne, Norman, & Ingarfield
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Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the.
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Understanding influences on teachers’ uptake and use of behaviour management strategies within the STARS trial: process evaluation protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Hansford, L., Sharkey, S., Edwards, V., Ukuomunne, O., Byford, S., Norwich, B., Logan, S., & Ford, T. (2015). Understanding influences on teachers' uptake and use of behavior management strategies within the STARS trial: process evaluation protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health (15)119. DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-1486-y
Authors: Hansford,.
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The Incredible Years Basic Parent Program for Preschoolers at Risk for Developmental Disabilities in the Hong Kong Community Setting

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Kong Mo Yee, M. (2015). The Incredible Years Basic Parent Program for Preschoolers at risk for Developmental Disabilities in the Hong Kong Community Setting (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Authors: Kong Mo Yee Maureen
  Parents of children with developmental disabilities experience a greater level of.
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Incredible Partnerships: parents and teachers working together to enhance outcomes for children through a multi-modal evidence based programme

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C. & Bywater, T. (2015). Incredible Partnerships: parents and teachers working together to enhance outcomes for children through a multi-modal evidence based programme. Journal of Children's Services 10(3), 202-217. DOI 10.1108/JCS-02-2015-0010
Authors: Webster-Stratton, Bywater
[spacer] Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of an.
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Bringing The Incredible Years Programs to Scale

The Incredible Years® (IY) program series is a set of interlocking and comprehensive training programs for parents, teachers, and children. This article briefly reviews the theoretical foundations, goals, and research underlying these programs. The main purpose of the paper is to describe how the IY programs have been scaled.
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The Incredible Years: Use of Play Interventions and Coaching for Children with Externalizing Difficulties

Excerpt (Book Chapter) Children derive unique benefits when their parents and teachers give them undivided, focused, regular, and responsive attention during child-directed play interactions. During adult-child play, the child develops a trusting emotional bond and important physical, cognitive, social, and language skills. Attentive playtimes also play a critical role in shaping.
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Targeted vs Universal Provision of Support in High-Risk Communities: Comparison of Characteristics in Two Populations Recruited to Parenting Interventions

Abstract Purpose: To compare the characteristics of parents and children recruited for two randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) of parenting support in disadvantaged communities in Wales in order to explore the effects of community-based vs individual-based targeting in early prevention. Design/methodology/approach: Parents from high-risk disadvantaged communities in Wales, where additional early intervention.
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Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program for Families with Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Ethnic Minority Backgrounds

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Families with socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds are often hard to reach for the prevention and treatment of disruptive child behavior problems. We
examined whether the Incredible Years parenting intervention can successfully reach and benefit families with socioeconomic disadvantaged and ethnic minority backgrounds in the Netherlands.

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Feasibility of an empirically-based program for parents of preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

The current paper reports on the feasibility of implementing an existing empirically-based program, The Incredible Years, tailored to parents of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Parents raising preschool-age children (ages 3 to 6) with ASD (N=17) participated in a 15-week pilot trial of the intervention. Quantitative assessments of the program revealed fidelity was generally maintained, with the exception of program-specific videos. Qualitative data from individual post-intervention interviews reported parents benefited most from child emotion regulation strategies, play-based child behavior skills, parent stress management, social support, and visual resources. More work is needed to further refine the program to address parent self-care, partner relationships, and the diverse behavioral and communication challenges of children across the autism spectrum. Furthermore, parent access and retention could potentially be increased by providing in-home childcare vouchers and a range of times and locations in which to offer the program. The findings suggest The Incredible Years is a feasible intervention for parents seeking additional support for child- and family-related challenges, and offers guidance to those communities currently using The Incredible Years or other related parenting programs with families of children with ASD.

Abstract only

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A Pilot Study with the Incredible Years Parenting Training: Does it Work for Fathers of Preschoolers with Oppositional Behavior Symptoms

Abstract

There is lack of research on the importance of including fathers in parent training programs. This study?s? main purpose is to examine the short-term effects of fathers attending an Incredible Years Parent Training (IY) for Portuguese preschoolers with oppositional/defiant symptoms. Thirty-six children (whose fathers were willing to attend a parenting group with their wives or partners) were randomly assigned either to receive the IY Program or to a waiting-list control group. Outcomes for the study included self-reported parenting-related variables and parents? ratings of their children?s behaviors. Data were collected before the intervention and six months after it. Results showed significant effects on fathers? positive parenting practices and ratings of children?s prosocial behaviors, as well as a reduction of the impact of symptoms on family functioning. Findings provided support for the short-term effectiveness of the IY intervention in Portuguese fathers of preschoolers with oppositional symptoms.

Read the article on the Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice about Men as Fathers website

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Incredible Years Parent and Child Programs for Maltreating Families

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Several aspects of the evidence-based IY BASIC parenting series make it particularly effective for families involved with child welfare due to maltreatment. The programs make extensive use of video modeling methods, showing a vignettes of families from different cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds with a variety of parenting styles and child temperament and development. The observational modeling and practice training approach is more effective learning for some of these families than the more cognitive, verbal training approaches.

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Bringing The Incredible Years Programs to Scale


We have learned that IY can be disseminated with high fidelity and sustained over time. Some of the critical factors include selecting optimal clinicians to deliver the program; providing them with quality training workshops coupled with ongoing supportive mentoring and consultation, on-site peer and administrative support; facilitative supports; and ongoing program evaluation and monitoring of program dissemination fidelity. Certainly it requires a collaborative team to bring about innovative change. Although it may be tempting for convenience sake and short-term resources to ignore the growing dissemination literature, doing so almost certainly will result in weak and unsustainable programs. Given that there are considerable time and costs involved in delivering even ineffective programs, a much wiser choice would be to invest resources in programs known to sustain high quality evidencebased practices.

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The Parent Infant Play Observation code (PIPOc): development and testing of a new positive parenting measure

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A recent UK government-commissioned report on early intervention stated that ?what parents do is more important than who they are? (Allen, 2011, p. xiv). The report emphasised the importance of support for families at disadvantage at an early age before behavioural and social problems become entrenched and more expensive to tackle. Children classified as securely attached in the first 12 to 18 months develop better peer relationships at pre-school (Sroufre, Fox, & Pankake, 1983) and achieve better academic outcomes (Pearson et al., 2011).

The increased emphasis on investing support for families before children enter school has increased the need for assessment tools that support and encourage positive parenting. Identifying the positive parental behaviours that promote healthy child development is challenging as many of the current observational codes have been designed for parents? interactions with older children. This article describes the development of a new observational code to analyse the behaviour of mothers playing with their baby in the first 18 months. The six predetermined positive parenting behaviours are analysed using video recordings from the home. Practitioners can be trained to use the code and a manual facilitates future researchers and clinicians to evaluate parent behaviour with their infant in a natural environment and with minimal disturbance to the family.

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Incredible Years Program Tailored to Parents of Preschoolers With Autism: Pilot Results

Abstract Only: Objective: This article reports on the acceptability and results from an evaluation of an empirically supported practice, The Incredible Years, tailored to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Two groups of parents (n ? 17) participated in a mixed methods test with no comparison group of the 15-week intervention. Data were collected at baseline, posttest, and on a weekly basis. Results: Acceptability and attendance were high, attrition was modest, and parent stress decreased significantly after program completion. Parents highlighted several barriers to their success in the program, including difficulty applying some program content (e.g., time-out for noncompliance) to children with sensory or self-regulation challenges. However, participants reportedly enjoyed the play-based approach of the program, as well as opportunities for social support and peer learning. Conclusion: The Incredible Years is a promising intervention for parents raising preschoolers with ASD. A randomized controlled trial is needed to rigorously test the intervention.

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Pilot Trial of The Incredible Years for Parents of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abstract Only:

Parents raising young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience disproportionately high levels of stress and burden, which are associated with a plethora of other negative child and family outcomes. Yet, few interventions address parent mental health or related outcomes in this population.

Chapter 1 describes a comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials which included parents of preschool-age children with ASD. Seven interventions met the review criteria. The studies were strengthened by the use of fidelity measures and developmentally-appropriate interventions. However, while all of the studies collected parent measures, none reported significant posttest improvements in parent mental health or other outcomes. Furthermore, numerous issues, such as unclear randomization strategies, small sample sizes, and poor external validity further limited the ability to draw significant conclusions regarding the promise of the interventions. The chapter concludes with a call to develop and rigorously test family-centered interventions aimed at improving both child and parent outcomes.

Chapter 2 highlights the feasibility of implementing an existing evidence-based practice, The Incredible Years, tailored to parents of children with ASD. Two groups of parents raising preschool-age children (ages 3 to 6) with ASD (N =17) participated in a 15-week pilot trial of the intervention. The fidelity of the program was generally maintained, with the exception of program-specific videos. Qualitative data from individual post-intervention interviews reported parents benefited most from child emotion regulation strategies, parent stress management, social support, and visual resources.

Chapter 3 reports on a mixed method test of the acceptability and results from the trial described in Chapter 2. Attendance was high (88% to 100% weekly) and attrition was modest (18%). Participants reported high acceptability of all aspects of the program (mean 3.3 out of 4). Parent stress decreased significantly after program completion, as compared to baseline. Parents highlighted several barriers to their success in the program, including trouble finding time to focus on their own needs and difficulty applying some program content (e.g., time-out for noncompliance) to children with sensory or self-regulation challenges. However, parents reportedly enjoyed the strengths-based, play-based approach of the program, as well as opportunities for social support and peer learning.

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Delivering Incredible Years Programmes: A practice perspective


A key principle of this programme is modelling, a primary way of learning for both children and adults. The importance of nurturing parents and offering appropriate venues, refreshments and cr?che facilities cannot be underestimated. The overall atmosphere is one of support, not judgment. Parents are encouraged and challenged too. They are given the opportunity to think through solutions for themselves and consider the impact of their behaviours. Parents begin to model a similar style with their children, starting to understand how their child may be feeling. This is often the catalyst for an improved relationship and a decrease in undesirable behaviour usually follows.

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Early Prevention of Antisocial Personality: Long-Term Follow-up of Two Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing Indicated and Selective Approaches

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Prevention of antisocial personality in childhood has been advocated, but evidence for effective interventions is lacking.

The authors conducted two follow-up studies of randomized trials of group parent training. One involved 120 clinic-referred 3- to 7-year-olds with severe antisocial behavior for whom treatment was indicated, 93 of whom were reassessed between ages 10 and 17. The other involved 109 high-risk 4- to 6-year-olds with elevated antisocial behavior who were selectively screened from the community, 90 of whom were reassessed between ages 9 and 13.

In the indicated sample, both elements of antisocial personality were improved in the early intervention group at long-term follow-up compared with the control group.

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Incredible Years follow-up study: Long-term follow-up of the New Zealand Incredible Years Pilot Study


As part of the Drivers of Crime work programme the Ministries of Education, Health and Social Development established a pilot study of the Incredible Years Parent (IYP) programme to assess its effectiveness in reducing conduct problems in a New Zealand context. ?? The New Zealand Incredible Years Pilot Study provided evidence to suggest that IYP, a programme developed overseas, can be successfully implemented in New Zealand and retain its general level of effectiveness for both M?ori and non-M?ori families. The Follow-up Study investigated the longterm outcomes for 136 (82%) of the 166 children and parents who were in the original sample. The key finding of the Follow-up Study is that the IYP programme outcomes were maintained over the 30-month follow-up with no diminution in the size of effects for almost all of the outcome measures.

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Assessing the Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parent Training to Parents of Young Children with ADHD Symptoms ? a Preliminary Report


Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an evidence-based parent training program in a real-world Scandinavian setting.

Method: Parents of 36 young children with or at risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) self-referred to participate in the Incredible Years? Parent Training Program (IYPT) through a Danish early intervention clinic. Using a benchmarking approach, we compared self-report data with data from a recent efficacy study.

Results: Eight out of nine outcome measures showed comparable or higher magnitude of effect from pretest to posttest. Effects were maintained or improved across six months.

Conclusions: The methodology of this study exemplifies a rigorous but feasible approach to assessing effectiveness when evidence-based U.S. protocols are transferred into the existing Scandinavian service delivery. Findings suggest that IYPT can be implemented successfully as an easy-access early intervention to families of children with or at risk of ADHD.

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Improving Therapist Fidelity During Implementation of Evidence-based Practices: Incredible Years Program

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Objective: The aim of the study was to extend research on the potential benefits of adding ongoing feedback, coaching, and consultation to initial therapist training workshops to ensure fidelity of delivery of evidencebased practices, specifically for the Incredible Years parenting program.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial compared two models for training therapists to deliver the parenting program for children at high risk of developing conduct problems. Therapists (N=56) from ten communitybased mental health service organizations in California were trained in either a three-day workshop model (N=25), based on active, experiential, self-reflective, principle-based learning, videomodeling, and manuals, or an enhanced training model (N=31) that included all elements of the workshop model plus ongoing expert coaching, video review of and feedback on group sessions, and consultation for therapists and agency supervisors.

Results: Overall fidelity across both conditions was rated >3 on a 5-point scale in seven of eight domains measured. Therapists in the condition that received ongoing coaching and consultation were significantly stronger in four of the domains: practical support, collaboration, knowledge, and skill at mediating vignettes. Conclusions: Consultation and expert coaching for training therapists beyond the standard three-day training enhanced skills and therapists? adherence to the model. (Psychiatric Services 65:789?795, 2014; doi: 10.1176/ appi.ps.201200177)

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ps.psychiatryonline.org June 2014 Vol. 65 No. 6. Written permission to reuse or distribute material published in the journals of the American Psychiatric Association must be secured from American Psychiatric Publishing https://store.appi.org/requestform/

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Use of Coaching and Behavior Support Planning for Students With Disruptive Behavior Within a Universal Classroom Management Program


Even with the use of effective universal classroom management practices, some students will need additional behavioral supports. However, to translate implementation of new strategies into the classroom, professional development programs need to be adaptive to the complexities teachers face in providing instruction and managing classroom behaviors among diverse learners. Teachers also need support to successfully implement universal practices as well as to develop and enact plans for supporting students with disruptive behavior. This article describes a universal classroom management program that embeds coaching within the model. The coach supported teachers both in implementing universal strategies and in developing and implementing behavior support plans for students with disruptive behavior. The study evaluates the effectiveness of the behavior support plans and the types of coaching activities used to support these plans. Findings indicated that during meetings with teachers, coaches spent time action planning and providing performance feedback to teachers on their implementation of the behavior support plans. In addition, teachers reduced their rate of reprimands with the targeted at-risk students. Students receiving behavioral supports demonstrated decreased rates of disruptive behavior, increased prosocial behavior, and a trend toward improved on-task behavior. In comparison, a matched sample of students with disruptive behaviors did not demonstrate improved outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed.

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Parents and Teachers Working Together


School-based social-emotional learning programs are cost saving for the public sector, with education services likely to recoup the cost of the intervention in five years. Lack of investment in well-being (mental health) promotion in schools is likely to lead to significant costs for society. The Incredible Years is a good example of an evidence-based intervention that can “go to scale”, and help parents and teachers work together to achieve common goals.

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Implementing the Incredible Years Parenting Programme in disadvantaged settings in Ireland: A process evaluation


Background: Conduct problems in children are common and have attracted considerable interest, not least because of their negative psychological, social and economic consequences. Controlled trials demonstrate that parenting programmes can be effective in reducing childhood behavioural problems, but much less is known about the processes of change or contextual factors that influence trial outcomes.

Objective: This study involved a process evaluation which was nested within a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Incredible Years Parenting Programme (IYPP) in Ireland. The study was designed to: (1) identify and examine the key facilitative and inhibitive factors associated with the implementation of the programme in disadvantaged settings; and (2) to assess the level of implementation fidelity (IF) achieved within the RCT evaluation.

Method: The process evaluation employed a longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, and consisted of two separate but related stages. In Stage One, the experiences of stakeholders (parents, practitioners and organisational managers) were assessed and explored using semi-structured interviews and focus groups. A series of in-depth interviews (N=81) was conducted with parents at pre-intervention (n=20), and at three follow-up time points, including 6- (n=33), 12- (n=20), and 18-months later (n=8). A further 16 interviews were conducted with group facilitators (n=11) and service managers (n=5) following delivery of the IYPP. Interview data were analysed using constructivist grounded theory. Stage Two was based on a mix of parent reports (N=103) and facilitator reports (N=11) designed to investigate aspects of fidelity within the RCT. Data were examined using a series of ANOVAs and correlational analyses.

Results: Three overarching themes were identified from Stage One, including: (1) ?Experiences of learned helplessness? (e.g. the association between child conduct problems and family conflict and social isolation); (2) ?Perceived benefits and mechanisms of change? (e.g. the links between positive outcomes and a number of factors, including key parenting skills, social support, longer-term resilience and commitment, and facilitative organisational practices); and (3) ‘Challenges in programme implementation’ (e.g. cultural discomfort with praise and positive attention,conflict with partners; and organisational difficulties with fidelity, attrition and sustainability). The findings from Stage Two indicated that IF was high in relation to therapist adherence (M=90%, SD=4%) and parental satisfaction (M=6.69, SD=0.14), but lower with regard to the retention of parents (M=8.23 sessions, SD=4.79). There were no statistically significant relationships between IF and the primary child behaviour outcome.

Conclusion: This process evaluation is one of the first studies to investigate the key short- and long-term factors associated with implementing the IYPP within disadvantaged settings. The findings underline the many benefits gained from participating in the IYPP whilst also indicating that extra supports may be required to enhance outcomes for the most vulnerable families, particularly in the longer term. Overall, the study highlights the feasibility of implementing the IYPP within the existing infrastructure of mainstream health and social service settings in Ireland. These findings represent a valuable addition to current evidence on the effectiveness of the programme, whilst also informing its routine implementation both within Ireland and elsewhere.

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Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement


This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings indicate that classrooms had posted positively stated classroom rules at high rates, whereas teacher use of specific praise and the ratio of positive to negative interactions were less than optimal. Furthermore, classroom teachers with higher rates of general praise were found to report being more efficacious with regard to classroom management. In turn, teachers in classrooms with higher rates of disruptive behavior reported feeling less efficacious. In addition, teachers with lower rates of positive to negative interaction, who used higher rates of harsh reprimands and had higher rates of disruptions, reported higher levels of emotional exhaustion. Implications for developing supports to assist teachers struggling with universal classroom management strategies are described.

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Tailoring the Incredible Years Parent, Teacher, and Child Interventions for Young Children with ADHD

Behavioral treatment research for preschoolers (ages 4 to 6 years) with ADHD is not extensive; however, parent training for young children diagnosed with ADHD has shown some preliminary promising outcomes. One of the core methods for the IY parent program is that therapists work collaboratively with parents to develop individual goals for each parent and child. IY therapists collaborate with parents to tailor the program content to each parent and child?s particular situation. For parents of children with ADHD, this tailoring process often involves helping parents understand ADHD and how it aff ects children?s social, emotional, and academic development, setting developmentally appropriate goals around increasing children?s att ention and focus and reducing misbehavior, strengthening children?s emotion regulation skills, and also changing the environment to support children?s need for movement, structure, predictable routines, scaffolding, and immediate feedback.

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A Parent-Based Intervention Programme Involving Preschoolers With AD/HD Behaviours: Are Children’s and Mothers’ Effects Sustained Over Time?


Abstract: To evaluate the 12-month efficacy of a parentbased intervention programme on children?s and mothers? outcomes in a sample of Portuguese preschoolers displaying early hyperactive and inattentive behaviours (AD/HD behaviours), 52 preschool children whose mothers had received the Incredible Years basic parent training (IY) were followed from baseline to 12 months of follow-up. Reported and observational measures were used. Effects were found in the children?s reported AD/HD behaviours at home and at school after 12 months. Large effect sizes were also found in mothers? variables: a decrease in selfreported dysfunctional parenting practices and an improved sense of competence and observed positive parenting. However, the improvements in coaching skills that have been observed after 6 months of follow-up decreased over time. No other significant differences were found between 6 and 12 months follow-up, with small effect sizes indicating that the significant post-intervention changes in child and parenting measures were maintained. After 12 months of follow-up, there was a clinically important reduction of over 30 % in reported AD/HD behaviours in 59 % of children. The sustained effects observed both for children and their mothers suggest long-term benefits of IY. Therefore, efforts should be made by Portuguese policy makers and professionals to deliver IY as an early preventive intervention for children displaying early AD/HD behaviours.

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Executive Functions in Preschool Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis


Deficits in executive functions (EF) have been found in school-age children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders. Present meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether these EF impairments can also be found in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems. Twenty-two studies were included with a total of 4021 children. Four separate meta-analyses were conducted, concerning overall EF, working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility. A medium correlation effect size was obtained for overall EF (ESzr00.22) and for inhibition (0.24), whereas a small effect size was found for working memory (0.17) and for cognitive flexibility (0.13). Moderator analyses revealed a stronger effect for older preschoolers compared to younger preschoolers, and for children from referred samples compared to community samples. These results show that EF, especially inhibition, is related to externalizing behavior problems already in preschool years.

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A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of a Teacher Classroom Management Program on the Classroom Behavior of Children With and Without Behavior Problems

photoIn the UK between three and seven percent of children aged five to 15 years meet diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder (CD; National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence [NICE], 2006); boys are three times more likely than girls to have such problems (Hutchings, Williams, Martin, & Pritchard, 2011; Office for National Statistics, 2007). Children with early onset behavioral problems likely to develop into CD are at high risk for social and emotional problems, poor school attendance, school dropout, academic failure and delinquency (Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Stoolmiller, 2008). Over the last decade, teachers have reported increasing levels of behavioral problems within the classroom (Hutchings et al., 2011). These children are often taught by teachers who are ill prepared to cope with disruptive behavior (Webster-Stratton et al., 2008). They are also likely to receive less support and positive feedback from their teachers and their peers (Arnold et al., 1999). Exposure to a supportive teacher and a positive classroom environment improves the academic achievement of high-risk children (Werner, 1999). High levels of praise for appropriate behavior improve children?s behavioral, social, and emotional adjustment as does the use of proactive teaching and positive discipline strategies (Webster-Stratton et al., 2008). These studies demonstrate that there is a need for effective, evidence-based classroom intervention programs to support teachers.

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A Trial of Parent Training for Mothers Being Released From Incarceration and Their Children

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Children of incarcerated mothers are considered at risk for disruptive behavior problems and later delinquency. Parenting may play a key role in this intergenerational transmission of delinquency. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training, enhanced with home visits, for (formerly) incarcerated mothers to prevent disruptive behavior problems in their 2- to 10-year-old children, by means of a nationwide randomized controlled trial. Mothers of 133 children
(M age?76.91 months; 48.9% boys) were assigned to an intervention, consisting of group sessions and individual home visits, or a no-intervention control group. The intervention yielded significant effects on parenting and child behavior for maternal report. Marginally significant effects on child behavior were found for teacher report. The
results show short-term effectiveness of parent training for the high-risk and hard-toreach population of (formerly) incarcerated mothers and their children.

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LEAP to Achieve: Learning through Encouragement, Attention, and Praise to Achieve Success

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The LEAP to Achieve Project trained teachers in effective classroom management practices using the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Training program. The project aims to determine if classrooms who receive the training have a reduction in aggressive/disruptive and off-task behavior and an increase in academic performance. In order to better determine the effects of the training, some teachers received the intervention while others did not.

“I love project LEAP. It is a very good program for teachers. It gives so many examples on how to be positive with behavior in your classroom.”

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Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

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Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social learning theory-based treatment promoted change in qualities of parent-child relationship derived from attachment theory.

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Improving Parenting Skills for Families of Young Children in Pediatric Settings: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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Disruptive behavior disorders such as Attention Deficient/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder are common and stable throughout childhood. These disorders cause long-term morbidity but benefit from early intervention. While symptoms are often evident before preschool, few children receive appropriate treatment during this period. Group parent training such as the Incredible Years has been shown to be effective in improving parenting strategies and reducing children?s disruptive behaviors. Because they already monitor young children?s behavior and development, primary care pediatricians are in a good position to intervene early when indicated.

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Sympathetic- and Parasympathetic-linked Cardiac Function and Prediction of Externalizing Behavior, Emotion Regulation, and Prosocial Behavior among Preschoolers Treated for ADHD

Objective: To evaluate measures of cardiac activity and reactivity as prospective biomarkers of treatment response to an empirically supported behavioral intervention for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Cardiac preejection period (PEP), an index of sympathetic-linked cardiac activity, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic-linked cardiac activity, were assessed among 99 preschool children (ages 4?6 years) with ADHD both at rest and in response to behavioral challenge, before participants and their parents completed 1 of 2 versions of the Incredible Years parent and child interventions. Results: Main effects of PEP activity and reactivity and of RSA activity and reactivity were found. Although samplewide improvements in behavior were observed at posttreatment, those who exhibited lengthened cardiac PEP at rest and reduced PEP reactivity to incentives scored higher on measures of conduct problems and aggression both before and after treatment. In contrast, children who exhibited lower baseline RSA and greater RSA withdrawal scored lower on prosocial behavior before and after treatment. Finally, children who exhibited greater RSA withdrawal scored lower on emotion regulation before and after treatment. Conclusions: We discuss these findings in terms of (a) individual differences in underlying neurobiological systems subserving appetitive (i.e., approach) motivation, emotion regulation, and social affiliation and (b) the need to develop more intensive interventions targeting neurobiologically vulnerable children.

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Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parent Training to Modify Disruptive and Prosocial Child Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review

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Highlights:
We examined effectiveness of the IYPT as treatment and preventive intervention.
Results of 50 studies showed that the IYPT is effective regarding child behavior.
Effects with regard to distinct outcomes and distinct informants were found.
Initial severity of child behavior was the strongest predictor of effects.
The IYPT meets criteria for a well-established intervention.

The present meta-analytic review examined effectiveness of the Incredible Years parent training (IYPT) regarding disruptive and prosocial child behavior, and aimed to explain variability in intervention outcomes. Fifty studies, in which an intervention group receiving the IYPT was compared to a comparison group immediately after intervention, were included in the analyses. Results showed that the IYPT is an effective intervention. Positive effects for distinct outcomes and distinct informants were found, including a mean effect size of d = .27 concerning disruptive child behavior across informants. For parental report, treatment studies were associated with larger effects (d = .50) than indicated (d = .20) and selective (d = .13) prevention studies. Furthermore, initial severity of child behavior revealed to be the strongest predictor of intervention effects, with larger effects for studies including more severe cases. Findings indicate that the IYPT is successful in improving child behavior in a diverse range of families, and that the parent program may be considered well-established.

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Latent Profile Analysis of Teacher Perceptions of Parent Contact and Comfort


When families are more involved there are positive outcomes for families, teachers and schools. Schools with high levels of parental involvement have better reputations in the community, higher teacher morale, higher parental ratings of teacher performance, and increased support from families (Henderson & Mapp, 2002; Heymann & Earle, 2000). These interrelated benefits are likely the result of involvement patterns that occur when parents are in contact with schools at levels they are comfortable with and the contacts are associated with increased comfort and endorsement of school. Overall parental involvement in school and in supporting children?s learning at home have received extensive attention in the literature. Less research has been conducted on patterns and teacher perceptions that can serve as a barrier to greater parent involvement. This study documented that teachers may feel less comfortable with parents of children who need the most support

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A Preliminary Evaluation of the Incredible Years Teacher Programme

This study reports on analysis of official record data gathered on 237 primary teachers enrolled in the Incredible Years Teacher (IYT) programme during 2010-2011. IYT is a group based programme that provides teachers with training in skills to manage disruptive classroom behaviours. Before and after comparisons showed that after the provision of IYT teachers reported significant (p < 0.001) increases in the frequency of use and usefulness of positive behaviour management strategies. In addition there were generally high levels of teacher satisfaction with various aspects of the programme including: the overall programme; teaching strategies used in the course; specific teaching techniques; and workshop leaders. These findings provide preliminary evidence of the efficacy of IYT and teacher satisfaction with the programme. It is suggested that further evaluations of the programme are conducted using a randomised wait list design.

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Illustrating the Multiple Facets and Levels of Fidelity of Implementation to a Teacher Classroom Management Intervention


Many school-based interventions to promote student mental health rely on teachers as implementers. Thus, understanding the interplay between the multiple domains of fidelity to the intervention and intervention support systems such as coaching and teacher implementation of new skills is an important aspect of implementation science. This study describes a systematic process for assessingmultiple domains of fidelity. Data from a larger efficacy trial of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) program are utilized. Data on fidelity to the IY TCMworkshop training sessions and onsite weekly coaching indicate that workshop leaders and the IY TCM coach implemented the training and coaching model with adequate adherence. Further, workshop leaders? ratings of engagement were associated with teacher implementation of specific praise, following training on this content. Lastly, the IY TCM coach differentiation of teacher exposure to coaching was evaluated and found to be associated with teacher implementation of classroom management practices and student disruptive behavior.

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The Incredible Years Basic Parent Training for Portuguese Preschoolers with AD/HD Behaviors: Does it Make a Difference?

Abstract

Background

Evidence-based psychosocial interventions such as parent training programs are strongly recommended as first-line treatment for preschool-age children with or at-risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).

Objective

Evaluate the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Basic Parent Training (IY) in hyperactive and inattentive behaviors of Portuguese preschoolers.

Methods

One hundred children, between three and six years-old, with AD/HD behaviors, who were part of a larger randomized controlled trial in which participants were allocated to either an intervention or control group. In this subsample analysis, there were 52 participants in the intervention condition (IYC) and 48 in the waiting-list control condition (WLC). Multi-informants and multi-measures of child and parenting behaviors were taken before and after the 14-week intervention.

Results

Medium-to-large intervention effects were found in primary caregivers? reported measures of children?s AD/HD behaviors and on self-reported parenting practices. Independent observations indicated significant short-term effects on positive parenting and coaching. Primary caregivers had a high attendance rate and reported high satisfaction with the program. Additionally, 43 % of children in the IYC clinically improved in the primary AD/HD outcome measure, compared with 11 % in the WLC.

Conclusions

Preliminary results suggest that IY parent training seems to be an effective tool, making the difference in the behavior of Portuguese preschoolers with early signs of AD/HD and their mothers.

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Incredible Years Pilot Study: Evaluation Report


A growing body of research provides evidence of the prevalence of childhood conduct problems and the long-term negative consequences that result. It also identifies parent management training such as the Incredible Years Parenting (IYP) programme as an effective evidence-based treatment. ?? As part of the Drivers of Crime work programme the Ministries of Education, Health and Social Development established a pilot study of the IYP programme to assess the effectiveness of this programme in reducing conduct problems in a New Zealand context. ?? The project was influenced by the recommendations of the Government Advisory Group on Conduct Problems, the Ministry of Education Positive Behaviour for Learning strategy and the desire to develop a new collaborative model to evaluate government-funded programmes. The benefits of the IYP training were broadly similar for M?ori and non-M?ori families. Both M?ori and non-M?ori parents expressed high to moderate satisfaction with the programme. These results suggest the IYP programme can be successfully implemented in New Zealand and retain its general level of effectiveness.

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Micro-Costing in Public Health Economics: Steps Towards a Standardized Framework, Using the Incredible Years Toddler Parenting Program as a Worked Example

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Complex interventions, such as parenting programs, are rarely evaluated from a public sector, multi-agency perspective. An exception is the Incredible Years (IY) Basic Parenting Program; which has a growing clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence base for preventing or reducing children?s conduct problems. The aim of this paper was to provide a micro-costing framework for use by future researchers, by micro-costing the 12-session IY Toddler Parenting Program from a public sector, multi-agency perspective. This micro-costing was undertaken as part of a community-based randomized controlled trial of the program in disadvantaged Flying Start areas in Wales, U.K. Program delivery costs were collected by group leader cost diaries. Training and supervision costs were recorded. Sensitivity analysis assessed the effects of a London cost weighting and group size. Costs were reported in 2008/2009 pounds sterling. Direct program initial set-up costs were ?3305.73; recurrent delivery costs for the program based on eight parents attending a group were ?752.63 per child, falling to ?633.61 based on 10 parents. Under research contexts (with weekly supervision) delivery costs were ?1509.28 per child based on eight parents, falling to ?1238.94 per child based on 10 parents. When applying a London weighting, overall program costs increased in all contexts. Costs at a micro-level must be accurately calculated to conduct meaningful cost-effectiveness/cost-benefit analysis. A standardized framework for assessing costs is needed; this paper outlines a suggested framework. In prevention science it is important for decision makers to be aware of intervention costs in order to allocate scarce resources effectively.

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One-Year Follow-Up of Combined Parent and Child Intervention for Young Children with ADHD


Efficacies of the Incredible Years (IY) interventions are well-established in children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) but not among those with a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to evaluate 1-year follow-up outcomes among young children with ADHD who were treated with the IY interventions. Four- to 6-year-olds with ADHD (n = 49, 73% male) participated in 6 months of treatment using the IY parent and child interventions. Immediate posttreatment results indicated improvements in parenting, children’s externalizing and attention problems, and social contact at school. At 1-year follow up, 22 of 27 variables that showed significant posttreatment effects demonstrated maintenance to 1-year follow up. Children with higher ODD symptoms at baseline showed more improvement in oppositionality and total behavior problems, and their mothers showed more improvement on harsh discipline scores. Approximately 70 to 75% of children were reported by their parents and teachers to fall below clinical cutoffs on measures of externalizing symptoms at the 1-year follow up (compared to 50% at baseline), and more than 50% fell below clinical cutoffs on measures of hyperactivity and inattentiveness (all were in the clinical range at baseline). Children with ADHD who were treated with the IY parent and child treatment programs showed maintenance of treatment effects 1 year after treatment.

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Efficacy of the Incredible Years Group Parent Program With Families in Head Start With a Child Maltreatment History

The IY parenting program has positive impacts for parents with a history of reported child maltreatment. While similar benefits were observed for both groups of parents in this study, results support delivering evidence-based parenting programs of longer duration and higher intensity than often used by agencies in the community serving parents in contact with child welfare. Practice: Agencies serving parents referred for child maltreatment should carefully examine the characteristics of the parenting programs they deliver. Use of a parenting program that has a sound base of empirical support, such as IY, and sufficient intensity and duration are likely necessary to make substantial changes in parents’ child-rearing practices.

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The Impact of Three Evidence-Based Programmes Delivered in Public Systems in Birmingham, UK

photoThe Birmingham Brighter Futures strategy was informed by epidemiological data on child well-being and evidence on “what works,” and included the implementation and evaluation of three evidence-based programmes in regular children’s services systems, as well as an integrated prospective cost-effectiveness analysis (reported elsewhere). A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Incredible Years BASIC parenting programme involved 161 children aged three and four at risk of a social-emotional or behavioural disorder. An RCT of the universal PATHS social-emotional learning curriculum involved children aged four?six years in 56 primary schools. An RCT of the Level 4 Group Triple-P parenting programme involved parents of 146 children aged four?nine years with potential social-emotional or behavioural disorders. All three studies used validated standardised measures. Both parenting programme trials used parentcompleted measures of child and parenting behaviour. The school-based trial used teacher reports of children’s behaviour, emotions, and social competence. Incredible Years yielded reductions in negative parenting behaviours among parents, reductions in child behaviour problems, and improvements in children?s relationships. In the PATHS trial, modest improvements in emotional health and behavioural development after one year disappeared by the end of year two. There were no effects for Triple-P. Much can be learned from the strengths and limitations of the Birmingham experience

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A Parenting Intervention for Childhood Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial In Disadvantaged Community-Based Settings

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This study, one of the first within a European context, focused on a high-risk sample recruited from real-world urban settings and showed significantly improved child and parent outcomes following a parenting intervention delivered by regular, communitybased service staff. The findings reported here support the importance of early childhood intervention and the utility of evidencebased parenting programs in community-based services in different cultural contexts and in settings characterized by high levels of social disadvantage. This work is an important step in the development, evaluation, and delivery of empirically validated interventions for vulnerable young children with conduct problems and their families. These findings should serve to guide future policy and practice decisions for governments and practitioners who are considering investing in and/or delivering the Incredible Years BASIC Parenting program for children with behavioral problems in disadvantaged communities across different geographical and cultural contexts.

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Introducing, Researching, and Disseminating the Incredible Years Programmes in Wales

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Which programme to choose? How to deliver it so as to achieve comparable outcomes to those reported in the research trials? These two issues, choice of programme and how to take interventions to scale and deliver them effectively in service settings, are the subject of the growing field of “implementation science” that has been informed by the Society for Prevention Research and set out in their guidance to service providers on how to ensure that evidence based programmes work in service settings (Flay et al. 2004) and by the work at the University of Colorado Center for Violence Prevention in identifying strongly evidence- based ?blueprint? programmes (Mihalic et al. 2002).

This paper provides a case study in the implementation and dissemination of the strongly evidence-based Incredible Years parent, child and teacher programmes across Wales. It describes the author?s work in delivering, researching and supporting the dissemination of the parent programme, and subsequently the child and teacher programmes, with the support of the Welsh government. It sets out the reasons for choosing the programmes, the steps taken to test their effectiveness in service settings across Wales, the dissemination process and lessons learned.

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Parent and Group Leader Reflections on a Group-Based Programme for Parents and Babies

photoNew IY programmes for parents of toddlers and babies were recently developed in Seattle by Carolyn Webster-Stratton, Ph.D. The 12-week toddler parenting programme has been the subject of a Welsh Government funded separate evaluation. The eight-week programme discusses appropriate stimulation and aims to increase parental sensitivity to their babies’ cues, encourage the development of parent support networks and highlight safety issues. Parents and their babies meet weekly with two trained leaders for twohour sessions. Updates on their infants’ activities and development are shared in a safe and supportive environment. Parents are encouraged to implement the programme strategies in their daily activities at home.

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Improvements in Maternal Depression as a Mediator of Child Behaviour Change

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Depression is a common and debilitating illness and there is a strong association between maternal depression and childhood Conduct Disorder (CD). This paper examines the impact of maternal depression on the outcome of treatment for the prevention of CD. Data from the Hutchings et al. (2007) Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) of a parenting programme for parents of high-risk three and four year olds are used to explore the potential role of change in maternal depression as a mediator of child behaviour outcome. The role of positive parenting as an additional mediator was also examined due to previous research findings. Improvement in maternal depression was found to be a significant partial mediator of improvement in child behaviour. Maternal depression continued to be a partial mediator when positive parenting was included in the mediation model. Parenting interventions for the prevention of CD are more likely to result in improved child behaviour when they also address the skill deficits known to be associated
with maternal depression.

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Supporting Teachers and Children in Schools: The Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Programme in Primary School Children


Childhood antisocial behaviour has high immediate and long-term costs for society and the individual, particularly in relation to mental health and behaviours that jeopardise health. Managing challenging behaviour is a commonly reported source of stress and burn out among teachers, ultimately resulting in a substantial number leaving the profession. Interventions to improve parenting do not transfer easily to classroombased problems and the most vulnerable parents may not be easily able to access them. Honing teachers’ skills in proactive behaviour management and the promotion of socio-emotional regulation, therefore, has the potential to improve both child and teacher mental health and well-being and the advantage that it might potentially benefit all the children subsequently taught by any teacher that accesses the training.

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Embedding the Family Check-Up and Evidence-Based Parenting Programmes in Head Start to Increase Parent Engagement and Reduce Conduct Problems in Young Children

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Parent engagement (i.e. enrolment, ongoing attendance, participation quality) remains ia major obstacle to fully realizing the benefits of evidence-based preventive parent management training in community settings. We describe an approach to parent engagement that addresses the myriad motivational, cognitive and pragmatic barriers parents face by embedding services in Head Start and applying a parent engagement model, the Family Check-Up, as a pre-intervention to augment parent training. In this article, we present the rationale for applying FCU to advance parent readiness for engagement and describe the process by which we partnered with the community to modify FCU to be most impactful for enhancing parent engagement in one specific programme, the Incredible Years Parenting Series. We conclude with preliminary data from our ongoing pilot trial that support our approach.

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Parent engagement (i.e. enrolment, ongoing attendance, participation quality) remains ia major obstacle to fully realizing the benefits of evidence-based preventive parent management training in community settings. We describe an approach to parent engagement that addresses the myriad motivational, cognitive and pragmatic barriers parents face by embedding services in Head Start and applying a parent engagement model, the Family Check-Up, as a pre-intervention to augment parent training. In this article, we present the rationale for applying FCU to advance parent readiness for engagement and describe the process by which we partnered with the community to modify FCU to be most impactful for enhancing parent engagement in one specific programme, the Incredible Years Parenting Series. We conclude with preliminary data from our ongoing pilot trial that support our approach.

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The Incredible Years Teacher Training: Using Coaching to Support Generalization to Real World Classroom Settings

This article focuses on the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training (IY TCM) intervention as an example of an evidence-based program that embeds coaching within its design. First, the core features of the IY TCM program are described. Second, the IY TCM coaching model and processes utilized to facilitate high fidelity of implementation of IY TCM by classroom teachers are highlighted. The goal is to demonstrate the use of coaching as a support system toward effective generalization of the IY TCM strategies among teachers with diverse backgrounds and skills who work with students with varying developmental, academic, and social?emotional needs. Implications for school psychologists, researchers, and implementation science are discussed.

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Perspectives on the Incredible Years Programme: Psychological Management of Conduct Disorder

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Conduct problems are the most common reason for referral for psychological and psychiatric treatment in childhood. The prevalence rate of conduct disorder is 5?10%. It can lead to negative life outcomes including criminal behaviour and psychiatric disorders, with increased costs to the education, health, social and criminal justice services. The study involved an evaluation of an universal school-based approach ? the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management programme ? which was developed in the US and implemented in Jamaica to help reduce conduct problems in young children.

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Evaluation of The Incredible Years in Sweden: The Transferability of an American Parent-Training Program to Sweden

Children with disruptive behavior problems (DBPs) constitute a large group among those cared for by child and adolescent social and psychiatric services. Serious anti-social behaviours, such as truancy,stealing, robbery and drug abuse, are very costly for society. Therefore, from a societal point of view, it is important to identify DBPs and introduce interventions already during the preschool years, aiming to prevent pathways leading from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) to severe conduct problems in middle childhood and adolescence.

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The Incredible Years Ireland Study, Parents, Teachers and Early Childhood Intervention: Long-term outcomes of the Incredible Years Parent and Teacher Classroom Management training programs (Combined 12-month Report)


Background: Early childhood behavioural difficulties are becoming more prevalent (Collishaw et al., 2004) and increase the risk of poorer outcomes later in life, including academic difficulties, antisocial behaviour, criminality, and poor social adjustment. A growing body of literature highlights the importance of early intervention and prevention programmes, such as parent-training or school-based programmes, for the prevention and treatment of early childhood behavioural problems and promotion of child well-being. The Webster-Stratton Incredible Years (IY) Parent, Teacher and Child Training Series was designed for the early treatment and prevention of conduct disorders in childhood (Webster-Stratton & Hancock, 1998). The IY series comprises a suite of comprehensive, specially designed programmes, which target children aged 0-12 yrs, and their parents and teachers, with a view to improving social and emotional functioning and reducing or preventing emotional and behavioural problems. The implementation of the IY programme in several community-based agencies and schools in Ireland began in 2004 – spearheaded by Archways, the national co-ordinator of the IY programme in Ireland – as a means of preventing and treating emotional and behavioural difficulties in children.

Study 1 (Section 1): Examining the longer-term benefits of the Incredible Years BASIC parent training programme in Ireland
Study 2 (Section 2): Examining the longer-term utility and implementation of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Programme in Ireland

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School-based Intervention for K-2nd Graders with Disruptive Behavior Disorders


The benefits of this school-based intervention support its implementation for disruptive behavior in schools. This model of intervention also provides effective ways to meet the needs of an underserved population. Children with significant needs for behavioral and social/emotional intervention can be treated in the same environment where the need is greatest: the community school.

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Reducing Child Conduct Problems and Promoting Social Skills in a Middle-Income Country: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

photoThis study is the first in a middle-income country to show that training teachers in classroom behaviour management and social skill promotion can lead to significant and clinically important reductions in child conduct problems and increases in social skills among pre-school children with antisocial behaviour. Benefits were demonstrated by direct observation as well as by teacher and parent report.

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Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Group-Based Parenting Programmes for Early-Onset Conduct Problems in Children Aged 3 to 12 Years


Summary: Parenting programmes that are delivered in group settings have the potential to help parents develop parenting skills that improve the behaviour of their young children. This review provides evidence that group-based parenting programmes improve childhood behaviour problems and the development of positive parenting skills in the short-term, whilst also reducing parental anxiety, stress and depression. Evidence for the longer-term effects of these programmes is unavailable. These group-based parenting programmes achieve good results at a cost of approximately $2500 (?1712 or ?2217) per family. These costs are modest when compared with the long-term social, educational and legal costs associated with childhood conduct problems.

Background: Early-onset child conduct problems are common and costly. A large number of studies and some previous reviews have focused on behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions, but methodological limitations are commonplace and evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these programmes has been unclear.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for improving child conduct problems, parental mental health and parenting skills.

Search methods:
We searched the following databases between 23 and 31 January 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to current), EMBASE (1980 to current), CINAHL (1982 to current), PsycINFO (1872 to current), Social Science Citation Index (1956 to current), ASSIA (1987 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1963 to current), Academic Search Premier (1970 to current), Econlit (1969 to current), PEDE (1980 to current), Dissertations and Theses Abstracts (1980 to present), NHS EED (searched 31 January 2011), HEED (searched 31 January 2011), DARE (searched 31 January 2011), HTA (searched 31 January 2011), mRCT (searched 29 January 2011). We searched the following parent training websites on 31 January 2011: Triple P Library, Incredible Years Library and Parent Management Training. We also searched the reference lists of studies and reviews.

Selection criteria:
We included studies if: (1) they involved randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised controlled trials of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions for parents of children aged 3 to 12 years with conduct problems, and (2) incorporated an intervention group versus a waiting list, no treatment or standard treatment control group. We only included studies that used at least one standardised instrument to measure child conduct problems.

Data collection and analysis:

Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias in the trials and the methodological quality of health economic studies. Two authors also independently extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information.

Main results:
This review includes 13 trials (10 RCTs and three quasi-randomised trials), as well as two economic evaluations based on two of the trials. Overall, there were 1078 participants (646 in the intervention group; 432 in the control group). The results indicate that parent training produced a statistically significant reduction in child conduct problems, whether assessed by parents (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.72 to -0.34) or independently assessed (SMD -0.44; 95% CI -0.77 to -0.11). The intervention led to statistically significant improvements in parental mental health (SMD -0.36; 95% CI -0.52 to -0.20) and positive parenting skills, based on both parent reports (SMD -0.53; 95% CI -0.90 to -0.16) and independent reports (SMD -0.47; 95% CI -0.65 to -0.29). Parent training also produced a statistically significant reduction in negative or harsh parenting practices according to both parent reports (SMD -0.77; 95% CI -0.96 to -0.59) and independent assessments (SMD -0.42; 95% CI -0.67 to -0.16). Moreover, the intervention demonstrated evidence of cost-effectiveness. When compared to a waiting list control group, there was a cost of approximately $2500 (GBP 1712; EUR 2217) per family to bring the average child with clinical levels of conduct problems into the non-clinical range. These costs of programme delivery are modest when compared with the long-term health, social, educational and legal costs associated with childhood conduct problems.

Authors’ conclusions: Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions are effective and cost-effective for improving child conduct problems, parental mental health and parenting skills in the short term. The cost of programme delivery was modest when compared with the long-term health, social, educational and legal costs associated with childhood conduct problems. Further research is needed on the long-term assessment of outcomes.

Article is available for purchase: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008225.pub2/abstract

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Early Childhood Family Intervention and Long-term Obesity Prevention Among High-risk Minority Youth

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Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.

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The Incredible Years: Evidence-Based Parenting and Child Programs For Families Involved in the Child Welfare System

This book chapter summerizes the Incredible Years Parent and Child Training Series: how to deliver IY parent and child core program principles and adapt the program with fidelity to meet the needs of intact families referred by child welfare as well as families where the children have been removed from the home. These evidence-based interventions have demonstrated ability to improve parent-child relationships and to build parents? own sense of competence and self-control as well as strengthen their supportive family and community networks. While it is not uncommon for child welfare agencies to seek briefer interventions than the Incredible Years, these families are complex and in the highest risk category for re-abuse and maltreatment if not adequately trained and supported. Data in the parenting literature support the notion that parenting curricula need to be substantial to produce sustainable effects with challenging populations (Kazdin & Mazurick, 1994). Data from the IY programs have shown that the dosage of the intervention received and fidelity with which it is delivered are directly linked to changes in parenting and child behaviors (Baydar, Reid, & Webster-Stratton, 2003; Eames et al., 2009). Our standard treatment recommendation for child welfare families referred because of abuse and neglect is a minimum of 18 2-hour parent and child group sessions delivered by accredited IY group leaders who have high levels of support and consultation.

Parent participation in the full IY program is expected to accomplish the following: improve the parent-child relationship; increase parents? sense of competence and self-control; increase the use of positive discipline strategies, predictable schedules and monitoring; and reduce the rates of harsh and physical discipline. Child participation in the full IY child program is expected to improve children?s emotional regulation, social skills and to strengthen problem-solving skills as well as attachment and trust with parents. In the long term, we expect that these improvements in parenting and parent-child relationships will lead to lower rates of re-abuse, fewer re-reports to Child Welfare Services and more academically, emotionally, and socially competent children. In order to break the intergenerational cycle of parent-child violence and neglect and child conduct problems, it is also necessary to provide enough training and support to therapists to assure program fidelity with the goal of these children getting the best parenting possible.

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A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Incredible Years Parenting Programme in Reducing Childhood Health Inequalities

Early onset of behavioural problems has lasting negative effects on a broad range of lifetime outcomes, placing large costs on individuals, families and society. A number of researchers and policy makers have argued that early interventions aimed at supporting the family is the most effective way of tackling child behaviour problems. This study forms the economic component of a randomised evaluation of the Incredible Years programme, a programme aimed at improving the skills and parenting strategies of parents of children with conduct problems. Our results show that the programme provides a cost-effective way of reducing behavioural problems. Furthermore, our cost analysis, when combined with a consideration of the potential long-run benefits, suggests that investment in such programmes may generate favourable long-run economic returns.

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A Pilot Study of the Incredible Years BASIC Parenting Programme with Bereaved Families

photoThere is strong evidence for the effectiveness of IY with diverse parenting populations but this is the first known study of the programme with bereaved families. The findings support its use with such families where child behaviour is a concern.

Parents own grief reactions, coupled with the multitude of practical stressors, may impact their ability to provide emotional care and stability for remaining children (Worden, 1996). Pfeffer et al. (2000) stressed that parents can become so overwhelmed and consumed by their own loss that they become less aware of their children?s emotional state. Alternatively, a parent?s own grief may prevent them from being able to cope with their child?s emotional and psychological needs. A parent?s level of physical and emotional exhaustion following the death of a spouse or significant family member may leave them with few internal resources to handle the new challenges of parenting

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The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme to Build Social and Emotional Competence in Welsh Primary Schools: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

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The aim of this paper is to present the research protocol for the randomised controlled trial (RCT) designed to primarily establish whether the IY Therapeutic Dinosaur School Programme, when delivered as a school-based targeted intervention, improves ?at risk? children?s social, emotional and behavioural competencies compared with a waiting list control condition.

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Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems

photoThe present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were compared with 72 families who received care as usual (control group). Two years after termination of the intervention, it appeared that observed and selfrated parenting skills were significantly improved in the intervention group. Likewise, in this group, observed child conduct problems showed sustained intervention effects. The decrease in observed critical parenting mediated the decrease in observed child conduct problems over time. In addition, it appeared that parental influence increased over time.

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Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD

One effective means of preventing early-onset conduct disorder (CD) may be to target preschool children with ADHD before more serious conduct problems have escalated. Unfortunately, one limitation of the ADHD treatment-outcome literature is that comparatively little research has been conducted with samples of children under age seven.

Although research indicates that methylphenidate and other psychostimulants are effective in reducing core ADHD symptoms such as inattention and distractibility among preschoolers (see e.g., Connor, 2002), there is little evidence to suggest that these medications prevent the escalation of ADHD to ODD and CD in later childhood or adolescence

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Incredible Years Parent Training Support for Nursery Staff Working within a Disadvantaged Flying Start Area in Wales: A Feasibility Study

The strategies used to manage children?s behaviour contribute significantly to the development, establishment and maintenance of conduct problems, and there is substantial evidence in the literature suggesting that parenting programmes are the most effective interventions for preventing or treating conduct problems, in the short
and long term, especially if delivered early, before the child encounters secondary risk factors following the transition to school. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of the IY
Basic Parenting Programme in enhancing parenting skills and reducing child conduct problems, as well as improving parent child relationships with children aged three to eight years old.

Increasing numbers of high-risk children now spend time in out-of-home care during their pre-school years. Government, at national and local level, is increasingly recognising the importance of delivering evidence-based parenting programmes, to parents of children living in disadvantaged areas at risk of developing CD, but this has not been reflected in similar support to childcare staff working in nurseries in these areas.

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Parent Training With High-Risk Immigrant Chinese Families: A Pilot Group Randomized Trial Yielding Practice-Based Evidence

Discourse on the application of PT with ethnic minority families has enumerated potential cultural barriers to engagement among parents whose own socialization experiences fall outside middle-class European American heritage. Given that parent?child relations and discipline practices are the proximal targets of change, many have cautioned that cultural barriers may threaten the generalizability of PT. Wide cultural variation in parenting practices and values across ethnic groups may influence receptivity to proscribed changes in parent?child interaction patterns, perhaps accounting for increased attrition or lowered participation among ethnic minorities. As such, PT interventions targeting ethnic minority families have been enhanced by attending to cultural barriers to engagement.

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Promoting Mental Health Competency in Residency Training


As pediatric mental health problems have become more prevalent, pediatricians face the need to hone their skills in identifying and managing these issues in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics has advocated for competency in mental health care for all pediatricians. Despite these recommended changes, ongoing deficiencies and barriers to developmental?behavioral pediatrics (DBP) training in residency persist, including inadequate faculty development, gaps in training, and funding. Graduates report feeling inadequately prepared to handle DBP issues.

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The Incredible Years Therapeutic Social and Emotional Skills Programme: A Pilot Study

Families of 97 children with early-onset conduct problems, 4 to 8 years old, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: a parent training treatment group (PT), a child training group (CT), a combined child and parent training group (CT + PT), or a waiting-list control group (CON). Post treatment assessments indicated that all 3 treatment conditions had resulted in significant improvements in comparison with controls. Comparisons of the 3 treatment conditions indicated that CT and CT + PT children showed significant improvements in problem solving as well as conflict management skills, as measured by observations of their interactions with a best friend; differences among treatment conditions on these measures consistently favored the CT condition over the PT condition. As for parent and child behavior at home, PT and CT + PT parents and children had significantly more positive interactions, compared with CT parents and children. One-year follow-up assessments indicated that all the significant changes noted immediately post treatment had been maintained over time. Moreover, child conduct problems at home had significantly lessened over time. Analyses of the clinical significance of the results suggested that the combined CT + PT conditions produced the most significant improvements in child behavior at 1-year follow-up.


As has become all too evident to researchers in the field as well as to the general public, the incidence of conduct problems in young children is increasing. Current estimates are that 7% to 25% of children are affected. This trend is disturbing, both in itself and in its social implications, for research has shown that the emergence of early-onset conduct problems in young children (in the form of high rates of oppositional defiant, aggressive, and noncompliant behaviors) is related to a variety of health and behavioral problems in adolescence – peer rejection, drug abuse, depression, juvenile delinquency, and school dropout (Campbell, 1991; Loeber, 1991).

In response to this growing social problem, a variety of innovative parent training interventions have been designed with the aim of reducing children’s conduct problems. The rationale for targeting parenting behavior as the primary focus of intervention arises from the considerable body of research indicating that parents of children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) lack certain fundamental parenting skills.

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The Influence of Group Training in the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program on Preschool Teachers’ Classroom Management Strategies

This study examined changes in preschool teachers? perceptions of classroom management strategies following group training in the recently revised Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (C. Webster-Stratton, 2006). The authors used a pre/post follow-up design across 2 groups that each met for 8 sessions over an 8?10-week period for a total of 32 hr of training. Twenty-four preschool teachers from one of the lowest income and highest unemployment counties in the state of Michigan participated in the program. To examine short-term maintenance effects, the authors collected follow-up data 16 weeks after all teachers completed the training. The authors found improvements in teachers? perceptions of positive classroom management strategies and their use. Transporting this evidence-based teacher training program to schoolbased mental health service delivery settings warrants additional study.

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Promoting Positive Parenting Practices in Primary Care: Outcomes and Mechanisms of Change in a Randomized Controlled Risk Reduction Trial


The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a short parent-training program (PT) reduces risk factors related to development of childhood socio-emotional and behavior problems in a non-clinical community sample. Data were obtained from parents in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on PT for children aged 2 to 8 years (N = 186) at pre-intervention, post-intervention and one-year-follow up. There were significant differences in the changes in the two groups, with reductions in harsh parenting and child behavior problems, an enhancement of positive parenting and of the parents? sense of competence in the intervention group. The effects on parenting and parents? satisfaction all lasted through one-year follow up. Our findings suggests that a shortened version of a well-structured parenting intervention, The Incredible Years program, implemented in primary care at community level, reduces harsh parenting and strengthens positive parenting and parents? sense of competence, as reported by the parents. Issues related to a public health approach to promote positive parenting are discussed.

Abstract only

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Parent Training Plus Contingency Management for Substance Abusing Families: A Complier Average Causal Effects (CACE) Analysis


Children of substance abusers are at risk for behavioral/emotional problems. To improve outcomes for these children, we developed and tested an intervention that integrated a novel contingency management (CM) program designed to enhance compliance with an empiricallyvalidated parent training curriculum. CM provided incentives for daily monitoring of parenting and child behavior, completion of home practice assignments, and session attendance.

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Early Intervention in Pediatrics Offices for Emerging Disruptive Behavior in Toddlers

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This study provides preliminary data about a parenting intervention for families of preschoolers with early attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/oppositional defiant disorder symptoms carried out in two diverse primary care pediatric offices. Mothers reported improvements in parenting skills and a decrease in stress. Mothers and providers reported high levels of satisfaction. Results support the benefits and feasibility of providing parenting education groups to parents of toddlers in pediatric practice settings.

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The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training: The Methods and Principles that Support Fidelity of Training Delivery

This paper focuses on the Incredible Years Teacher Training (IY TT) intervention as an example of an EBP that embeds fidelity and adaptation within its design. First, the core features of the IY TT program along with the methods and processes that make the intervention effective are described. Second, the support mechanisms (training, mentoring, consultation, and IY TT coaching) necessary to facilitate high fidelity of implementation of IY TT are highlighted. The goal is to clarify the underlying principles and layered supports needed to effectively disseminate the IY TT program to audiences with diverse backgrounds and skills who work with students with varying developmental, academic, and social-emotional needs. Often fidelity and adaptation are thought of as mutually exclusive, but in the IY model they are considered both complementary and necessary. Implications for school psychologists and prevention science are discussed.

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Investigating the Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Basic Parenting Programme for Foster Carers in Northern Ireland


Children who are looked after experience significantly higher levels of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties than children who live with their family of origin. Such difficulties tend to be pervasive and can have detrimental consequences for placement stability, and ultimately for the child?s ability to reach their potential. Government documents such as Care matters highlight the importance of providing ongoing training and support to foster carers to equip them with the necessary skills to manage the complex needs presented by children who are looked after. The nature of this training and support is often debated. With this in mind, Barnardo?s Professional Fostering Service piloted the Incredible Years Basic Parenting Programme with 13 foster carers. The 12-week programme was evaluated using the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory pre and post intervention. Results provide a promising insight into the potential of the Incredible Years Basic Parenting Programme as a method of training and supporting foster carers.

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Long-Term Outcomes of Incredible Years Parenting Program: Predictors of Adolescent Adjustment


Background and Methods: Fifty-eight boys and twenty girls with early onset conduct problems whose parents received the Incredible Years (IY) parent treatment program when they were 3?8 years (mean 58.7 months) were contacted and reassessed regarding their social and emotional adjustment 8?12 years later. Assessments included home interviews with parents and teenagers separately.

Results and conclusion: Adolescent reports indicated that 10% were in the clinical range on internalizing behaviors, 23% had engaged in major delinquent acts, and 46% reported some substance use. Eighteen percent of children had criminal justice system involvement and 42% had elevated levels of externalizing behaviors (mother report). Post-treatment factors predicting negative outcomes (delinquent acts) were maternal reports of behavior problems and observed mother?child coercion.

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Positive classrooms, Positive Children: A Randomized Controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management programme in an Irish context (short-term outcomes)


The findings point toward the overall utility and cost-effectiveness of the IY TCM programme in an Irish context. The programme led to improvements in the classroom environment, including a reduction in teacher reported stress and negative classroom management strategies, as well as fewer incidences of disruptive behaviour amongst pupils in the classroom. Some improvements were also seen in teacher reports of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties in the intervention group children when compared to their control group counterparts including, in particular, a significant reduction in emotional symptoms. Teacher reports also underline the acceptability and benefits of the programme to teachers and possibly other staff within the Irish education system.

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Evaluating the IY Toddler Programme (Poster)


Using Paired T-Tests, analysis of the 5 subcategories of Negative Parenting revealed that the Intervention group showed changes in the right direction in all five subcategories, 3 of these were significant changes; Critical Statements, Physical Negatives and Negative Commands.

Highlights of this evalutation are in poster format.

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Is Stacking Intervention Components Cost-Effective? An Analysis of the Incredible Years Program

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Research demonstrates that interventions targeting multiple settings within a child’s life are more effective in treating or preventing conduct disorder. One such program is the Incredible Years Series, which comprises three treatment components, each focused on a different context and type of daily social interaction that a child encounters. This article
explores the cost-effectiveness of stacking multiple intervention components versus delivering single intervention components.

Economic data may be used to compare competing intervention formats. In the case of this program, providing multiple intervention components was cost-effective.

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Randomised Controlled Trial of Parent Groups for Child Antisocial Behaviour Targeting Multiple Risk Factors: The SPOKES Project

There is a pressing need for cost-effective population-based interventions to tackle early-onset antisocial behaviour. As this is determined by many factors, it would seem logical to devise interventions that address several influences while using an efficient means of delivery. The aim of this trial was to change four risk factors that predict poor outcome: ineffective parenting, conduct problems, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and low reading ability.

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Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program “Incredible Years” in a Child Protection Service


This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program in improving parenting practices, parents? feeling of self-efficacy and parents? perception of their child?s behavior, implemented in a child

Though the implementation of an evidence-based parent training program by professionals in a child protection service presents specific challenges, results suggest that it can contribute to improvements in parenting practices and in parents? perception of their child?s behavior.

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