We examined the relative contribution of a variety of risk factors, including maternal history and socioeconomic background, current levels of stress and social support, mothers’ emotional state, and parenting competence in relation to “pervasive” (i.e., at home and school) and “nonpervasive” conduct problems and low social competence. Findings indicated similar risk factors for conduct problems and for low social competence, with an ordered increase it eh number of risk factors from normal to “nonpervasive to “pervasive” groups. Harshness of parent style (i.e., slapping, hitting, yelling) significantly distinguished between the three groups for low social competence and conduct problems. Positive affect, praise, and physical warmth from mothers were positively related to social competence but unrelated to conduct problem
Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C., Hammond, M. 1998. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, Vol.1 No.2.